Questions tagged [atmosphere]

Questions regarding a layer of gasses surrounding a celestial object.

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20
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2answers
843 views

Terrestrial Exoplanet Skies – I've Built a Visual Sky Chart. Is it Accurate?

I'm an artist (and science enthusiast) and I've been trying to find a comprehensive resource that would help me clearly identify likely sky colors (as perceived by human vision) for exoplanets that ...
5
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1answer
124 views

Could Eris have a permanent atmosphere?

In Wikipedia they write that Eris has an atmosphere when around perihelion (close to the Sun) which collapses when Eris moves away from the Sun. So it behaves similar to a comet's tail. However, they ...
3
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1answer
92 views

If Jupiter would stop rotating, would its atmosphere become homogeneous and single coloured?

Looking at pictures of Jupiter, there are many different colours and patterns. I imagine that the rotation has much to do with this, since there are horizontal "bands" across the planet along the ...
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2answers
94 views

Why is blue light extincted more strongly than red?

We know that blue light suffers extinction more strongly than red (examples include ISM, atmosphere etc.), but why? Is it a property of the shorter wavelength itself? Can someone provide a conceptual ...
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0answers
17 views

X-rays, Solar wind and Sun's corona

I was reading that Solar corona emits the solar wind however also X-rays. What is the difference during the creation of these effects and impacts on our atmosphere? Thank you!
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0answers
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Is the atmosphere of neutron star solid, liquid or gaseous state? [duplicate]

Neutron star has a thin layer of atmosphere consist mostly of hydrogen and helium and is about less than a metre thick on average, but what wasn't stated in many articles I read is the state of matter ...
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2answers
44 views

What is the horizontal distance needed to observe an object just as badly as if it where in space at the zenith?

When I see an object in space (let's say the ISS) above my head, my line of sight traverses ~$100\; km$ of atmosphere. The vast majority of the extinction, absorption and turbulence happens closer to ...
3
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1answer
66 views

How does one find the electric conductivy of a planet's atmosphere?

I am working on an undergraduate project in which we study shaped structures in the atmosphere of the gas giants. We are investigating whether the magnetic field is the source of the instability ...
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2answers
164 views

If gaseous planets have solid core, can they theoretically be considered as rocky planets?

I read that gaseous planets such as Jupiter and Saturn, have a solid core deep inside. So, I wondered whats the difference between them and rocky planets apart from the fact that they have - what can ...
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6answers
5k views

What does forward modeling mean?

In my research on exoplanets, I have heard many people talk "forward modeling of exoplanet atmospheres". I don't know what the "forward" means in "forward modeling" and how it compares with "reverse ...
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Why did Venus not lose its atmosphere without magnetic field?

It is often stated that the magnetosphere not only shields the planet from cosmic radiation, but also prevents atmospheric loss. Why then did Venus not lose most of its atmosphere if it doesn't have a ...
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1answer
95 views

When and where are we exposed to most cosmic radiation?

I understand the mechanical dynamics of being faced away from the Sun at night, having a lower altitude, not being in the weak points at the poles in the atmosphere, being in a valley and others ...
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3answers
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Could a Jovian or Saturnian moon keep its atmosphere if the system was within the habitable zone?

Currently the atmosphere of Titan is 1.5x thicker than Earth's atmosphere, but it's also much much colder. It's been said that an astronomical body can keep it's atmosphere if the escape velocity is ...
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1answer
148 views

Why does Titan have an atmosphere while similar moons such as the Galilean moons don't?

The Galilean moons of Jupiter are similar in size to Titan and are also protected by their parent planet's magnetic field. How come only Titan is able to maintain an atmosphere?
3
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1answer
644 views

In the end what is the ultimate matter/element in the universe, due to fusion process in stars?

We know that, in stars, hydrogen is used by the stars and due to the fusion in two hydrogen elements we get helium -> Carbon -> Oxygen ->Other elements -> Iron -> then Super/Hypernova. If everywhere ...
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2answers
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What if the atmosphere of Titan were like the one on Venus?

The current mean temperature in Titan is −180 ºC (93 K), the same as in Saturn. But I was wondering what would be the case if the atmosphere of Titan would be like the Venus atmosphere, whose ...
51
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5answers
11k views

Why is moon light not the same color as sunlight?

The light from the moon is light being reflected from the sun. The sun, in space, is white. But on Earth, when the light is filtered through an atmosphere, the light appears yellow. So then, why is ...
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0answers
55 views

What would happen to the atmosphere of a rogue jovian planet?

Let's say we have a gas giant composed primarily of hydrogen and hydrogen-rich molecules that is ejected from its star system. As this planet embarks on its potentially infinite journey out into the ...
2
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1answer
404 views

Why do most meteors vanish just before hitting the ground?

Many times we see in the sky that most of the meteor shower trails vanish when they are about to strike the earth several feet above the ground. Why does this happen? They could strike the earth's ...
2
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1answer
89 views

Why are cirrus clouds more common on Mars?

Mars water ice clouds are often associated with regional- to-global circulation and saturation conditions, as opposed to local convective overturning, and so typically exhibit cirrus rather than ...
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2answers
337 views

Can a planet with a hydrogen atmosphere have a water ocean with dissolved oxygen? [closed]

Reading up on rogue planets (i. e. planets not orbiting a star), it turns out that a rogue Super-Earth with a sufficiently dense hydrogen atmosphere could retain its internal heat and have oceans/...
2
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1answer
404 views

Could Mars have oil?

What events could have to happen to Mars (which is thought to once look like Earth) that may have depleted the atmosphere and erase all proof of life ever existing at least on the surface? I know an ...
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2answers
168 views

A neutron star without a flat surface and an atmosphere?

In the Kurzgesagt video Atoms As Big As Mountains — Neutron Stars Explained they state that neutron stars have an atmosphere that reaches about 10 centimeters above the surface. How is this possible?...
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2answers
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What was the first astronomical measurement which demonstrated that “the Earth is surrounded by vacuum”?

The question Who was the first to realize that the Earth is surrounded by vacuum? was closed because some users felt it was answered by answers to a different question in an different SE site: Who was ...
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1answer
256 views

Is the moon inside earth’s atmosphere? If so, what are the consequences?

Recently, a paper was published claiming that the Earth’s atmosphere extends far beyond the Moon. This has been reported on by a number of news sources and websites, including the ESA, Business ...
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5answers
789 views

Vacuum of space [closed]

Firstly I’m genuinely interesting in a working explanation for this question. It is for this reason that I am editing the question to fine tune the question. In essense the question has remained the ...
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1answer
151 views

Does Jupiter lose some atmosphere at all?

I've hear of something like this: "All planets lose their atmospheres eventually and they become a barren rock if given enough time." There are three types of atmospheric loss ways: Jeans Escape: ...
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1answer
185 views

Do the gases in the Earth's atmosphere affect the color of a lunar eclipse?

As the sun's rays pass through the Earth's atmosphere only the red light gets through. Is this the result of specific gases in the Earth's atmosphere filtering the red light? Does all of the nitrogen ...
3
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1answer
232 views

What causes Titan a moon to have a denser atmosphere than that of a Mars?

I'm wondering about Mars and Titan. If Mars is larger than Titan how come it lost most of its atmosphere? Mars also has a magnetic field while Titan doesn't. Yet Titans atmospheric pressure on the ...
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1answer
76 views

What are the characteristics of solid carbon dioxide on the Martian poles?

When carbon dioxide forms on Mars is it like ice or snow? How dense is newly formed solid carbon dioxide? Would more carbon dioxide form inside a pit vs a flat plain? How thick or deep does solid ...
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2answers
101 views

Why is it that night has a almost a bluish tint to it instead of red?

From my understanding/been told, the color red has the ability to travel the farthest in our atmosphere, being the reason why we have red sunsets and such. But with this in mind, why is it that at ...
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1answer
139 views

what determines the density of atmospheres

What factors determine the atmospheric density on various planets and moons? Some larger bodies have less dense atmospheres, while some smaller ones have a more dense atmosphere.
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1answer
415 views

What causes the aurora of other planets to have different colors?

All I could come up with is it depends on the atmospheric composition of the planet as they will interact with the charged solar particles which might be true but is there is there a definite reason ...
6
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1answer
229 views

What is the underwater temperature of Europa?

If Europa has an oxygen atmosphere with a water mantle, is it possible that there could be life under the crust of Europa ice on the ocean where it is warmer? What could be the temperature under the ...
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2answers
260 views

Adiabatic versus convection

I am reading about the interior temperature structure of Jupiter. It says in various texts that there are regions in Jupiter's atmosphere which are well-approximated by a dry adiabatic lapse rate. ...
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2answers
172 views

Is Titan Better or Mars? [closed]

Isn't Titan better to colonize than Mars? It has a thick atmosphere which is made up of nitrogen like our planet's. It doesn't have a magnetic field, but it does get a type of protection from Saturn. ...
7
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1answer
127 views

What causes the abundance of dust to 'float' in the thin lunar atmosphere?

Several missions to the Moon have revealed a lunar horizon glow, such as the ones seen below by the spacecraft Surveyor 7 in 1968: Image source: NASA According to the NASA article "Model Helps ...
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2answers
1k views

Would a high albedo reflective substance cool down Venus?

If we were to put a highly reflective substance into Venus's upper atmosphere, could we cool it down? I am envisioning adding a highly reflective fine dust or gas, possibly lighter than "air" to the ...
5
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1answer
741 views

How does gravity affect pressure under water?

How different would being under water in Europa differ from being under water on Earth? Would it be possible to dive deeper on Europa with a submarine than on Earth and by how much?
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1answer
70 views

Solution for counting atmospheric layers of planets according to relational data [closed]

This math states, that by multiplying the gravitational pull (we assume square of density of the planet), by its inclination (being how high and out it goes) and subtracting that loop from the ...
6
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1answer
197 views

Mars vs Venus: the retention of atmospheres in relationship to Earth

Correct me if I'm wrong, but the factors than enable a planet to retain or lose an atmosphere seem to be: 1. Magnetic Field, 2. Solar Winds, 3.Weight of Gases, 4. Planetary Temperatures. 5. Distance ...
5
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3answers
758 views

Why do stars twinkle but planets don't [duplicate]

Many people say that stars twinkle because of Earth's atmosphere. However, the atmosphere is still there when we look at planets and don't see they twinkling. Is there a clear scientific consensual ...
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1answer
48 views

How thick or deep does solid carbon dioxide accumulate on Mars?

On Mars is there an area in which all the $CO_2$ evaporates exposing dirt near the pole? How deep can solid $CO_2$ accumulate during winter in that area during the Martian Winter? https://space....
2
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1answer
84 views

What is the smallest possible planet with same sea level atmospheric pressure as Earth? [closed]

Suppose there is a planet made of pure tungsten (a quite common and heavy element), with perfect spherical shape. Which should be its radius so that the air pressure and ground/sea level is the same ...
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1answer
148 views

Looking at ourselves with a powerful telescope?

Could a small curved mirror and/or lens in Earth's orbit be aimed at a different hemisphere from where you are be be viewed with a powerful telescope to see the ground through the mirror? Would a more ...
6
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2answers
113 views

What are the conditions for an ionosphere to form?

What are the conditions for an ionosphere to form on a given planet? Factors I could think of are Class and age of the star the planet orbits Distance to said star Density and composition of the ...
3
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1answer
273 views

Is it possible to see Saturn from Titan's surface, day and night?

Titan is the only moon in our solar system with a thick atmosphere, similar to what our Earth's atmosphere was before life "appeared". It also orbits Saturn close enough to actually see it beautifully ...
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1answer
29 views

What are the real conditions for the creation of an atmosphere/loss of an existing atmosphere?

Overview: Taking a planet Ganymede for example (moon, technically I suppose). Ganymede is huge (well, in contrast to other bodies) and I've noticed a pattern between larger bodies and atmospheres. ...
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3answers
284 views

Could the Moon sit on the Earth?

Let say that the Earth's Moon was knocked out of orbit and landed on the Earth with some damage but not world ending. Would Earth's atmosphere envelop to include the Moon? Would the moon sink into the ...
3
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1answer
128 views

Why does the adiabatic exponent decrease at the ionization zones?

The context is the ionization zones in stellar atmospheres or interiors, the Sun, for instance. The adiabatic exponent is the heat capacity ratio: $$\gamma = \frac{c_P}{c_V} = \frac{C_P}{C_V}$$ And,...