Questions tagged [atmosphere]

Questions regarding a layer of gasses surrounding a celestial object.

Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
6
votes
1answer
232 views

Mars vs Venus: the retention of atmospheres in relationship to Earth

Correct me if I'm wrong, but the factors than enable a planet to retain or lose an atmosphere seem to be: 1. Magnetic Field, 2. Solar Winds, 3.Weight of Gases, 4. Planetary Temperatures. 5. Distance ...
5
votes
3answers
796 views

Why do stars twinkle but planets don't [duplicate]

Many people say that stars twinkle because of Earth's atmosphere. However, the atmosphere is still there when we look at planets and don't see they twinkling. Is there a clear scientific consensual ...
2
votes
1answer
65 views

How thick or deep does solid carbon dioxide accumulate on Mars?

On Mars is there an area in which all the $CO_2$ evaporates exposing dirt near the pole? How deep can solid $CO_2$ accumulate during winter in that area during the Martian Winter? https://space....
2
votes
1answer
86 views

What is the smallest possible planet with same sea level atmospheric pressure as Earth? [closed]

Suppose there is a planet made of pure tungsten (a quite common and heavy element), with perfect spherical shape. Which should be its radius so that the air pressure and ground/sea level is the same ...
-2
votes
1answer
150 views

Looking at ourselves with a powerful telescope?

Could a small curved mirror and/or lens in Earth's orbit be aimed at a different hemisphere from where you are be be viewed with a powerful telescope to see the ground through the mirror? Would a more ...
6
votes
2answers
113 views

What are the conditions for an ionosphere to form?

What are the conditions for an ionosphere to form on a given planet? Factors I could think of are Class and age of the star the planet orbits Distance to said star Density and composition of the ...
0
votes
1answer
31 views

What are the real conditions for the creation of an atmosphere/loss of an existing atmosphere?

Overview: Taking a planet Ganymede for example (moon, technically I suppose). Ganymede is huge (well, in contrast to other bodies) and I've noticed a pattern between larger bodies and atmospheres. ...
1
vote
3answers
307 views

Could the Moon sit on the Earth?

Let say that the Earth's Moon was knocked out of orbit and landed on the Earth with some damage but not world ending. Would Earth's atmosphere envelop to include the Moon? Would the moon sink into the ...
3
votes
1answer
159 views

Why does the adiabatic exponent decrease at the ionization zones?

The context is the ionization zones in stellar atmospheres or interiors, the Sun, for instance. The adiabatic exponent is the heat capacity ratio: $$\gamma = \frac{c_P}{c_V} = \frac{C_P}{C_V}$$ And,...
14
votes
2answers
1k views

How can clouds form in Jupiter's atmosphere of Hydrogen and Helium?

Here is a graphic of cloud layers of Jupiter (source: Wikipedia): There are three distinct cloud layers of ammonia, ammonium hydrosulfide, and water. The temperature and pressure conditions seem to ...
6
votes
1answer
159 views

How deep in Mars would a person not need insulation and pressure? [duplicate]

How deep in Mars' surface would one have to go to both not need a pressurized suit and be warm enough to just wear clothes? in other words is there a dept Goldilocks where you would only need an ...
6
votes
1answer
2k views

At what depth on Mars would the atmosphere have equal pressure of that on Earth?

I know the atmospheric pressure on Mars is less than that of Earth, and so is its gravity. However, I know that the deeper you go (e.g. in a cave or a hole that is dug), the more atmospheric pressure ...
15
votes
2answers
260 views

Does Ceres have an exosphere similar to the Moon?

Thinking about the question and answers for Does the Moon have any oxygen in its atmosphere? begs the question, despite being considerably smaller than the Moon and further away from the sun, does ...
5
votes
1answer
139 views

Does Pluto's atmosphere collapse?

There were theories that Pluto's atmosphere collapses when it gets too far from the sun. Then I've read papers that says that it doesn't. But NASA says that the surface pressure went down recently (...
5
votes
2answers
162 views

Say we were to bring Titan to Earth's orbit. How much would its atmospheric pressure change?

I've heard one of the reason why Titan has such a thick atmosphere is because of its really low temperature. So say that were were to magically bring Titan to the Same orbit as Earth, and the moon ...
1
vote
2answers
100 views

Can a planet's gravity rip out its moon's atmosphere?

We all know that solar flares can rip a planet's atmosphere if the magnetic field is weak.Solar flares travel at tremendous speed so when they hit the gas molecules of a atmosphere the molecules are ...
-1
votes
1answer
78 views

Where will the atmosphere of our Earth go if our sun blows it away completely?

What will happen?Will our atmosphere head to the next gravity dominant body?Will our moon hold a part of our atmosphere or is too weak to hold it?Where all those gases are supposed to go?
2
votes
0answers
55 views

Is thermal disintegration of meteorites variable with lattitude?

If meteorites and bolides are aligned to the solar system, then do they have twice as much atmosphere to go through at high latitudes? Wouldn't we expect a higher percentage of metal meteorites ...
2
votes
1answer
116 views

Helium discovered on an exo planet

Why is there so much excitement over helium having been discovered on an exoplanet? Isn't it oxygen that we should be looking for, since this is what is needed for life? What do we need helium for?
2
votes
1answer
102 views

Scattered Intensity of Light vs Angles of Incidence and Emission

So I just derived an expression for the scattered intensity of light from an atmosphere with ideal isotopic scattering: $I/F=\frac{cos(i)}{4(cos(e)+cos(i))}$, where $I$ is intensity, $F$ is flux, $i$ ...
1
vote
1answer
264 views

Is there a comfortable part of Venus's upper atmosphere?

I know the surface of Venus is very hot, but that it gets cooler the higher you go in the atmosphere. I have heard that there is a section in the atmosphere of Venus that might be somewhat habitable ...
3
votes
1answer
169 views

What would the pressure and temperature of gas be, right above Jupiter's gas/liquid boundary?

Older pages like this "Exploration of the Solar System" course page describe the transition as being a few hundred kilometers down. More recent findings seem to put the boundary deeper. See The ...
2
votes
1answer
74 views

What does “O I” mean in the context of detected molecules?

I've recently been analysing the Exoplanet Database, and have been looking at the 'molecules' field (molecules detected on the planet or in its atmosphere). They all make sense apart from "O I". It's ...
3
votes
1answer
127 views

What is tilt anisoplanatism for Laser-guide-star usage in adaptive optic systems?

How does tip-tilt mirrors correct such issue? What is the physical origin of the error?
1
vote
1answer
126 views

Venusian polar surface temperatures

I've stumbled across several articles about how the Venusian polar high atmosphere is really cold. What these articles appear to fail to specify is what the surface temperatures of the poles are. I am ...
4
votes
3answers
797 views

Oxygen in a methane atmosphere akin to methane in oxygen atmosphere?

If we assume a planet the size of Earth with an equally dense atmosphere of nitrogen and methane, rather than oxygen, and it's in the goldilocks zone. Would a hypothetical alien species be able to use ...
12
votes
2answers
4k views

Why argon instead of another noble gas?

I noticed that the atmospheres of Earth and Mars have a little bit of argon in them (1% to 2%). I checked Venus, too, which has 0.007% argon, but that's still more than any other noble gas in the ...
7
votes
0answers
185 views

Is the wind's intensity on Mars similar to Earth?

I've read that in Mars' poles, the winds can be as fast as 400 km/h, when the poles are exposed to sunlight because the frozen $CO_2$ sublimes. I know that the Martian atmosphere is much thinner than ...
1
vote
1answer
258 views

How much time does it take for a meteor (shooting star) to touch the ground after its combustion? [closed]

I know that meteors that We see as shooting stars travel tens of thousands of kilometers per hour and are tiny as a grain of sand, but after hitting the atmosphere and burn I suppose that its ashes ...
0
votes
1answer
151 views

The consequences and the mechanisms of a shift of the Earth away from the sun

First premise: I have already made this question in the worldbuilding section, but since it is a very specific question many have recommended me to write in the astronomy section so here we are. ...
3
votes
1answer
227 views

Is it thought that the majority of Earth size or larger terrrestrial planets have retained most of their original atmospheres?

I used to think that most terrestrial planet atmospheres were secondary (from out gassing). However, after reading this https://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/20140017487.pdf and ...
2
votes
1answer
104 views

How long can afterglow last after a fireball?

I was watching the YouTube video Perseid Meteor Shower - Mojave Desert, California which looks East before sunrise, presumably in mid-August of 2016. I've made a GIF of a few seconds near the ...
3
votes
2answers
2k views

Where does the CO2 in Mars atmosphere come from?

As far as I know, Earth and Mars were relatively similar when the solar system formed. So most of the CO2 was used to form carbonic rocks (right?). I found that tectonic movements are the reason that ...
2
votes
1answer
235 views

Are the darker blue/black areas in this picture what the atmosphere of Jupiter looks like without clouds?

This is a picture (mosaic?) of Jupiter's south pole taken by Juno (also shown below). It has gotten a lot of press, but I haven't seen anything, even in the scientific paper that accompanied its ...
0
votes
0answers
82 views

Does space not make sound, or can we just not hear it? [duplicate]

This is a question regarding sound waves and space. I know that sound waves must travel through a medium "air", enter our brains, and then we can decipher what exactly the sound is. But in space, ...
1
vote
1answer
2k views

Does the Sun have any atmosphere?

Does the Sun have any atmosphere of its own? Is it just like the atmospheres that the planets have.
0
votes
1answer
27 views

What are reliable resources for weather and all other atmospheric obstructions?

Everyone knows you need clear skies to see what the stars or the Sun is doing. Weather is not too particularly hard to determine. There are many resources out there that will tell us the weather in ...
-2
votes
1answer
96 views

Pluto is fuzed to all the asteroids, comets, other minor planets, etc. Would it be big enough to hold an atmosphere without forming a tail? [closed]

Pluto is fuzed to all the asteroids, comets, other minor planets, etc. Would it be big enough to hold an atmosphere without forming a tail? All minor planets, asteroids, comets, etc that aren't ...
8
votes
1answer
112 views

What is the projected range of the JWST to be able to detect exoplanet atmospheres?

Yesterday the K2 mission detected transit events of objects passing in front of a number of M dwarfs which could turn out to be rocky planets. If some of these planets host atmospheres, could the JWST ...
3
votes
1answer
371 views

What is germane doing in the atmosphere of Jupiter?

Germane (GeH4) has been detected in the atmosphere Jupiter. Its formation from the elements seems to be thermodynamically unfavorable because its enthalpy of formation is positive and (I think) it ...
1
vote
1answer
112 views

If a rocky world is large enough (not a gas or ice giant) can it have helium from the primordial disk in its atmosphere?

When planets are formed do only gas and ice giants accrete hydrogen and helium? Does this accretion have to be beyond the "snow line"? In other words, would all hydrogen or helium in the atmosphere ...
11
votes
3answers
6k views

Why is twilight longer in summer than winter and shortest at the equinox

I recently decided to set my alarm clock to wake me up when it is "dark" out. In the end, I decided to set my clock to the earliest time that nautical sunrise is in my state (Illinois) and stick with ...
5
votes
1answer
306 views

Helium in terrestrial planet atmospheres?

When you look at effective temperature ranges and escape velocities of planets, there is a "population" where hydrogen escapes, but helium doesn't. Is it feasible that there may be planets less that ...
4
votes
2answers
28k views

Why do objects burn when they enter earth's atmosphere?

Why do all objects burn when they enter our atmosphere? is this because of our atmosphere composition? and does this happen on other planets as well?
4
votes
1answer
114 views

Is there a consensus as to where terrrestrial planet atmospheres in our solar system came from?

I tried to research this and I'm not sure if there is a consensus where the $CO_2$, $N_2$, etc. comes from on terrestrial planets like Venus, Earth and Mars. Possible sources would be accretion from ...
2
votes
1answer
225 views

Does the given radius of a planet/moon include its atmosphere?

In NASA fact sheets, such as this one for Venus, a radius of the planet is given. Is that radius the radius of the surface of the planet, or of the envelope of atmosphere? Put another way, if ...
2
votes
1answer
114 views

Effect of Hot/Warm Jupiter atmosphere loss on other planets

Let us suppose a solar system with a Hot/Warm Jupiter HJ (with a semi-major axis somewhere from 0.5 AU to 0.0001 AU) and an Earth-Like planet EL in it (with a semi-major axis of about 1 AU). Let their ...
2
votes
1answer
48 views

Can IR sensitive cameras read signals from Venus's surface emissions?

This question got me thinking about this. I know that we measure the Earth's surface temperature by satellite (perhaps somewhat inaccurately, but it's done all the same). Using Venus as an ...
5
votes
3answers
513 views

How many stars can be seen naked eye from outside the atmosphere? How dense is the “sky” from there?

When I was 20, I went to Naxos (Greece) with friends. I was driving my car during the night on the mount Zeus (1003 meters - 3,291 ft) listening Pink Floyd. Up there we stopped the car to take a walk,...
1
vote
2answers
132 views

Are exoplanets at dwarf stars less likely to have super-rotating atmospheres or asynchronous tidal locking?

Dwarf stars have terrestrial sized planets orbiting in habitable zones very close to them. These exoplanets are often said to be tidally locked to their star, like the Moon is to Earth, and that they ...