Skip to main content

Questions tagged [atmospheric-effects]

Questions about the influences of Earth's atmosphere on astronomical observations.

Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
1 vote
0 answers
39 views

What would happen to the sky colour if SO2 made up 95% of the atmosphere?

Taking into account the Rayleigh scattering phenomenon, assuming that the atmosphere is 1 bar, how would the light from the G2V-type star interact with this kind of environment? Could the colour of ...
Sam Biswas's user avatar
7 votes
1 answer
1k views

Is Earth's Atmospheric Thickness Related to Cosmic Ray Radiation?

Why does cosmic radiation diminish entirely, reaching zero, at sea level? If the atmosphere's thickness were random, it should not happen at sea level, but at a random altitude. Is there a specific ...
wepajakeg's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
65 views

Which of the blocked radiation windows will (mostly) open if one where to observe from the surface of Mars, instead of the Earth?

Earth’s atmosphere is composed of about 78 percent nitrogen, 21 percent oxygen, 0.9 percent argon, and 0.1 percent other gases. Trace amounts of carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor, and neon are some ...
some_math_guy's user avatar
7 votes
0 answers
150 views

Can terrestrial infrared telescopes see through clouds or haze, sometimes at least?

My answer to Could UV-A imaging sensor reasonably see a total eclipse in progress through clouds? suggests that while clouds blocking visible light observation of the (partially) eclipsed solar disk ...
uhoh's user avatar
  • 30.7k
6 votes
2 answers
90 views

Meteors arriving to a planet's atmosphere?

Imagine a planet with little or no wind activity or precipitation, but that still has an atmosphere. When a meteoroid reaches the atmosphere and burns, it converts into dust and gas. Does this gas and ...
vengaq's user avatar
  • 1,017
2 votes
0 answers
34 views

Could rogue planets with cold nucleus have winds or water currents/waves due to the planet's rotation?

Are there any types of wind or waves caused and produced only and exclusively by a planet's rotation? Not influenced by the planet's rotation, but produced solely by it? In the case of waves, are ...
vengaq's user avatar
  • 1,017
3 votes
0 answers
75 views

To what extent does the increased average airmass the Sun's light passes through contribute to the seasons?

The traditional explanation for the cause of seasons I have heard is that because of the angle of the axis of the Earth with respect to the ecliptic, the angle at which light rays hit the Earth's ...
Peter's user avatar
  • 31
3 votes
1 answer
262 views

Solar eclipse impact on twilight

Has anyone observed the impact of the solar eclipse on twilight? I mean mostly the extension of the totality path in the atmosphere. I mean the pattern below: I - normal situation with total solar ...
Geographos's user avatar
3 votes
2 answers
214 views

Venus Atmosphere Color

I want to ask what color is the Venusian atmosphere without the presence of dense clouds for our human vision? I searched for this question, and did not find a suitable answer. Everywhere they write ...
Mikee's user avatar
  • 51
2 votes
0 answers
124 views
+400

Has "crescent-twinkling" even been demonstrated or at least calculated/predicted? Any "twinkleometer" data for Venus out there?

My new answer to Why does Venus flicker? addresses something that I find particularly interesting; Venus can be an incredibly thin crescent at times, and even a 1 arcminute large thin ring with an ...
uhoh's user avatar
  • 30.7k
2 votes
1 answer
286 views

What exactly causes "color twinkling" and why does it seem that any color might be furthest refracted for a moment?

In this answer to Betelgeuse appears in a rainbow of colors through a Newtonian telescope I link to a video of a bright star imaged at perhaps video rate (I think) through a telescope. In addition to ...
uhoh's user avatar
  • 30.7k
3 votes
1 answer
52 views

When measuring the spectrum of an object at the zenith, is it better to orient the spectroscopic slit N-S of E-W?

If you were to measure the spectrum of an object while it's exactly at the zenith, how should you orient the slit of the spectrograph to minimise atmospheric dispersion? Is North-South or East-West ...
Soph's user avatar
  • 33
3 votes
1 answer
142 views

What conditions are necessary for the sun to look [as described below]

First of all sorry for the weird title. I have no idea how to describe it in a succinct way because I've never heard of something similar happening and I've only witnessed it once. The only way for me ...
Tony's user avatar
  • 141
1 vote
1 answer
111 views

How would the surface of Mars compare with the Atacama desert for millimeter wave (and shorter) radio astronomy?

In this answer to What kind of experiments would a scientist do on Mars? I suggest that the resemblance of the ALMA array's site in the Atacama Desert to the surface of Mars suggests millimeter ...
uhoh's user avatar
  • 30.7k
4 votes
3 answers
111 views

Fixed star-like light appears for a second or two - is there a way to find out what it was?

I saw what I can only describe as a fixed point of light, as bright as a shooting star, near Alpheratz for a second or two before disappearing. I am positive it wasn't a satellite nor a plane. There ...
Erken's user avatar
  • 143
14 votes
3 answers
3k views

Why are fewer stars seen next to the horizon?

I was in the desert the other day, in an area that was free of light pollution. While it was easy to see the stars above us, I noticed that near the horizon, even when there is no distance light, we ...
riorio's user avatar
  • 395
3 votes
1 answer
122 views

What are the oxygen or water vapor lines?

I was reading the document Recommendation ITU-R P.676-11 (09/2016); Attenuation by atmospheric gases (P Series, Radiowave propagation) in order to calculate the atmospheric losses, and there were some ...
DaDSPGuy's user avatar
14 votes
4 answers
5k views

What it the outer part of the sun, that we see with our eyes, called?

When we look at the sun with our eyes it seems much larger than it actually is. When we use a solar filter we are seeing what the sun actually is. So, what is the name of the thing the solar filter is ...
Beans's user avatar
  • 551
2 votes
1 answer
449 views

How precise are Saemundsson/Bennett refraction formulas?

I was trying to reproduce the predictions of the Bennett formula* by physically-based calculations with a model based on a real-life refractivity profile. My calculations based on Table V from ref. 1 ...
Ruslan's user avatar
  • 967
3 votes
1 answer
168 views

Why could I so easily see and photograph such a bright totally eclipsed Moon from a bright city road? (May 26, 2021 total lunar eclipse)

Due to scheduling and geometry I could only snap last night's lunar eclipse with an older model cell phone on a pedestrian overpass of a brightly lit city street, but surprisingly the Moon was quite ...
uhoh's user avatar
  • 30.7k
11 votes
1 answer
394 views

Do radio telescopes see other stars better at night?

As you know, we don’t see stars with the naked eye during the day because of the visible glare of our Sun. As I understand our Sun emits radio frequency waves, too. Is there a radio ‘glare’ from the ...
David's user avatar
  • 555
2 votes
1 answer
104 views

How do they know the TNT equivalent of the meteor explosion over Vermont?

I've seen several reports of this meteor explosion, below are two. Was there infrasound recordings of the pressure wave, or were weak, local seismic signals recorded, or it this just a ballpark ...
uhoh's user avatar
  • 30.7k
3 votes
0 answers
368 views

Why do some stars twinkle more than others?

This is a child's question I failed to answer. When observing some stars with naked eye, some stars (e.g. Regulus) appeared to blink significantly more than others, but I did not have the patience to ...
B--rian's user avatar
  • 5,626
4 votes
1 answer
81 views

Effect of particulates on the visibility of stars?

I am looking for a (mathematical) relationship - either empirical or theoretical - which quantifies how the visibility of celestrial objects decreases with increasing amount of particulates in the air....
B--rian's user avatar
  • 5,626
3 votes
2 answers
121 views

Understanding energy loss in a telescope aperture due to atmospheric dispersion

I'm trying to understand energy losses due to atmospheric dispersion, given the plot below from the Keck telescope. For a typical seeing I'm told that there's 80% encircled energy in 1". The ...
theWrongAlice's user avatar
7 votes
1 answer
216 views

Do stars twinkle when seen from Mars' surface?

Mars' average atmospheric pressure is 0.006 atm (0.088 psi). Is that enough to make fixed stars on Mars' night sky twinkle? Do we know an air pressure or density limit for that?
Greenhorn's user avatar
  • 397
2 votes
3 answers
216 views

Source of red in earth's photographs

What is the red in this picture of earth? At first we thought it might be pollution, but Jupiter also has red. Picture source: https://education.seattlepi.com/primary-movements-motions-earth-4701....
Bookaholic's user avatar
  • 1,559
-1 votes
1 answer
485 views

If the Earth circled a red dwarf/giant or a brown dwarf, would its sky still look blue? [duplicate]

I have the impression that in brown dwarf and weak red dwarf systems, everything looks more reddish on a planet, including its atmosphere regardless of composition. Suppose there's a planet having an ...
Greenhorn's user avatar
  • 293
1 vote
0 answers
47 views

Why do in general stars twinkle and planets don't? [duplicate]

I got an email update on what can be observed this week. Jupiter looks like a bright yellow-white star, almost as bright as Mars. Saturn is about 10 moon widths to the left and slightly above, and is ...
zabop's user avatar
  • 481
1 vote
1 answer
524 views

Can an average person see stars from the bottom of a well or through cardboard tubes? Definitive answer required!

A debate about seeing stars or planet during the day below this answer to the Aviation SE question At what altitude might a pilot be able to see at least the brightest stars during the day? seems ...
uhoh's user avatar
  • 30.7k
3 votes
1 answer
114 views

How far can we detect lightning in radioastronomy?

The wikipedia article on whistlers has this information: Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft detected whistler-like activity in the vicinity of Jupiter known as "Jovian Whistlers", implying the ...
ksousa's user avatar
  • 1,201
5 votes
1 answer
748 views

Would a red dwarf star resemble our own Sun at sunset to an observer on a nearby planet?

Suppose you're observing a red dwarf star at Noon from the surface of an Earth-like planet orbiting in the red dwarf's habitable zone, so that the red dwarf's luminosity is equal to our own Sun. Aside ...
RobertF's user avatar
  • 183
0 votes
0 answers
65 views

A question about Sun disk deformation

Suppose the Sun rises and due to refraction the Sun's disc gets deformed. Let the center of the sun be $O$ and $OL$, $OR$, $OT$, $OB$ be the distances from the center of the disc to the edges in the ...
justaguest's user avatar
3 votes
2 answers
288 views

Which kinds of astronomical observations most need to avoid the Moon being up?

This comment to Did nobody in the Astronomy community think 12,000 new satellites in LEO might be a problem? links to Phys.org's New ESO study evaluates impact of satellite constellations on ...
uhoh's user avatar
  • 30.7k
6 votes
2 answers
641 views

Why is blue light extincted more strongly than red?

We know that blue light suffers extinction more strongly than red (examples include ISM, atmosphere etc.), but why? Is it a property of the shorter wavelength itself? Can someone provide a conceptual ...
Astroturf's user avatar
  • 1,111
5 votes
1 answer
131 views

When are wedge prisms used to correct chromatic effects of atmospheric refraction? (atmospheric dispersion)

Atmospheric refraction (shown below) happens because Earth's atmosphere has an index of refraction that differs from unity. @MikeG's comment mentions that this refraction would have a chromatic ...
uhoh's user avatar
  • 30.7k
4 votes
1 answer
188 views

What can be learned from low frequency radio astronomy available outside of Earth's ionosphere?

As discussions and answers to How large does refraction become in radioastronomy? point out, it is difficult to do radio astronomy much below 30 MHz (or 10 MHz depending on how aggressive you are in ...
uhoh's user avatar
  • 30.7k
2 votes
2 answers
73 views

What is the horizontal distance needed to observe an object just as badly as if it where in space at the zenith?

When I see an object in space (let's say the ISS) above my head, my line of sight traverses ~$100\; km$ of atmosphere. The vast majority of the extinction, absorption and turbulence happens closer to ...
Swike's user avatar
  • 3,926
1 vote
1 answer
281 views

When and where are we exposed to most cosmic radiation?

I understand the mechanical dynamics of being faced away from the Sun at night, having a lower altitude, not being in the weak points at the poles in the atmosphere, being in a valley and others ...
Muze's user avatar
  • 1
2 votes
1 answer
85 views

How could the polarizer in early coronagraphs make the Sun's corona more visible against the daytime sky?

Wikipedia's Coronagraph; Invention says: High Altitude Observatory's Mark IV Coronagraph on top of Mauna Loa, uses polarization to distinguish sky brightness from the image of the corona: both ...
Sartem Cacartem's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
79 views

Why would atmospheric absorption increase rather than decrease the antenna temperature in Penzias and Wilson's famous CMB observation?

The classic paper A MEASUREMENT OF EXCESS ANTENNA TEMPERATURE AT 4080 Mc/s begins: Measurements of the effective zenith noise temperature of the 20-foot horn-reflector antenna (Crawford, Hogg, and ...
Youngsub Yoon's user avatar
4 votes
2 answers
279 views

Why is only a narrow chunk of sky darkened in this amazing Curiosity solar eclipse GIF from Mars?

I found three NASA JPL images in the sequence PIA23133, PIA23134, and PIA23135. They were taken by the Curiosity Rover on Mars and show solar eclipses by Mars' two moons. Details of these images are ...
uhoh's user avatar
  • 30.7k
1 vote
1 answer
121 views

Was is the angle needed to see a glory (a rainbow-like effect) from space off the Earth? [closed]

What positions would the Earth, Sun and viewer need to be to see a glory (a rainbow-like effect) from space? What position would they need to be in to reproduce this picture? Source: Gizmodo (NASA ...
Muze's user avatar
  • 1
13 votes
2 answers
363 views

What was the first astronomical measurement which demonstrated that "the Earth is surrounded by vacuum"?

The question Who was the first to realize that the Earth is surrounded by vacuum? was closed because some users felt it was answered by answers to a different question in an different SE site: Who was ...
uhoh's user avatar
  • 30.7k
3 votes
2 answers
329 views

What is meant by "there is no refraction at the zenith"?

Wikipedia states: Atmospheric refraction of the light from a star is zero in the zenith and other sources seem to agree. I don't see why this should be so. Consider a situation in which air gets ...
Mark Eichenlaub's user avatar
13 votes
4 answers
474 views

How would rainbows appear on other planets?

Are other planets capable of producing rainbows? How would those rainbows appear? Can rain, clouds or ice from elements other than water produce rainbows? Related: https://space.stackexchange.com/...
Muze's user avatar
  • 1
4 votes
1 answer
868 views

Under what situations can an aperture mask improve the resolution of a small/medium amateur telescope? Is this demonstrable mathematically?

@antlersoft's answer describes some of the challenges to seeing any details in the small disk of Mars in small amateur telescopes. In the case of reflecting telescopes, it mentions the use of either ...
uhoh's user avatar
  • 30.7k
4 votes
3 answers
2k views

What color is the Sky on other Planets?

On Earth, the sky is blue. What color would the sky be on other planets in our solar system? What about outside the solar system? Are there planets with purple skies, or green skies? Or are the all ...
PotatoLatte's user avatar
4 votes
2 answers
1k views

Why is it that night has a almost a bluish tint to it instead of red?

From my understanding/been told, the color red has the ability to travel the farthest in our atmosphere, being the reason why we have red sunsets and such. But with this in mind, why is it that at ...
Ian Smith's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
215 views

Why is the opening in the Anglo-Australian Telescope's dome so small?

Many older or "classic" telescope domes have a horizon-to-zenith opening in the dome, and this helps speed up the thermal equilibration between the inside and outside air, decreasing turbulence and ...
uhoh's user avatar
  • 30.7k