Questions tagged [atmospheric-effects]

Questions about the influences of Earth's atmosphere on astronomical observations.

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3answers
613 views

Adiabatic versus convection

I am reading about the interior temperature structure of Jupiter. It says in various texts that there are regions in Jupiter's atmosphere which are well-approximated by a dry adiabatic lapse rate. ...
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303 views

Would a red dwarf star resemble our own Sun at sunset to an observer on a nearby planet?

Suppose you're observing a red dwarf star at Noon from the surface of an Earth-like planet orbiting in the red dwarf's habitable zone, so that the red dwarf's luminosity is equal to our own Sun. Aside ...
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A question about Sun disk deformation

Suppose the Sun rises and due to refraction the Sun's disc gets deformed. Let the center of the sun be $O$ and $OL$, $OR$, $OT$, $OB$ be the distances from the center of the disc to the edges in the ...
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Which kinds of astronomical observations most need to avoid the Moon being up?

This comment to Did nobody in the Astronomy community think 12,000 new satellites in LEO might be a problem? links to Phys.org's New ESO study evaluates impact of satellite constellations on ...
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1answer
332 views

How would astronomical seeing on Mars differ from that on Earth?

Astronomical seeing is the limiting factor for the resolution of all but the smallest Earthbound telescopes. Source Stunning advances in adaptive optics (along with it's predecessor speckle ...
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2answers
230 views

Why is only a narrow chunk of sky darkened in this amazing Curiosity solar eclipse GIF from Mars?

I found three NASA JPL images in the sequence PIA23133, PIA23134, and PIA23135. They were taken by the Curiosity Rover on Mars and show solar eclipses by Mars' two moons. Details of these images are ...
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1answer
61 views

How could the polarizer in early coronagraphs make the Sun's corona more visible against the daytime sky?

Wikipedia's Coronagraph; Invention says: High Altitude Observatory's Mark IV Coronagraph on top of Mauna Loa, uses polarization to distinguish sky brightness from the image of the corona: both ...
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Why would atmospheric absorption increase rather than decrease the antenna temperature in Penzias and Wilson's famous CMB observation?

The classic paper A MEASUREMENT OF EXCESS ANTENNA TEMPERATURE AT 4080 Mc/s begins: Measurements of the effective zenith noise temperature of the 20-foot horn-reflector antenna (Crawford, Hogg, and ...
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1answer
91 views

Was is the angle needed to see a glory (a rainbow-like effect) from space off the Earth? [closed]

What positions would the Earth, Sun and viewer need to be to see a glory (a rainbow-like effect) from space? What position would they need to be in to reproduce this picture? Source: Gizmodo (NASA ...
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321 views

What was the first astronomical measurement which demonstrated that “the Earth is surrounded by vacuum”?

The question Who was the first to realize that the Earth is surrounded by vacuum? was closed because some users felt it was answered by answers to a different question in an different SE site: Who was ...
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137 views

What is meant by “there is no refraction at the zenith”?

Wikipedia states: Atmospheric refraction of the light from a star is zero in the zenith and other sources seem to agree. I don't see why this should be so. Consider a situation in which air gets ...
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How would rainbows appear on other planets?

Are other planets capable of producing rainbows? How would those rainbows appear? Can rain, clouds or ice from elements other than water produce rainbows? Related: https://space.stackexchange.com/...
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466 views

Under what situations can an aperture mask improve the resolution of a small/medium amateur telescope? Is this demonstrable mathematically?

@antlersoft's answer describes some of the challenges to seeing any details in the small disk of Mars in small amateur telescopes. In the case of reflecting telescopes, it mentions the use of either ...
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115 views

Why is the opening in the Anglo-Australian Telescope's dome so small?

Many older or "classic" telescope domes have a horizon-to-zenith opening in the dome, and this helps speed up the thermal equilibration between the inside and outside air, decreasing turbulence and ...
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Impact of Atmospheric Water vapour on Optical Observations

I would like to ask; how does Water Vapour in the atmosphere interfere with astronomical observations? Is it in the same manner as Carbon dioxide? What brought this to mind is the following: A ...
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355 views

Formula for sun's atmospheric refraction below the horizon

I have searched in Google and found interesting articles for atmospheric refraction influence on sun's elevation above the horizon (from 0° till 90°). eg. Bennett G.G. etc. I would like to know if ...
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64 views

Would an extremely bright star produce same kind of shadow band effect as seen in solar eclipses just before totality?

This answer explains that the shimmering patterns seen on surfaces at the moment before totality of a solar eclipse are called shadow bands, and that the phenomenon is closely related to the twinkling ...
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238 views

What is causing this strange shimmering pattern of light during a total solar eclipse?

Below this question was left a comment linking to the Smarter Every Day video Space Station Transiting 2017 ECLIPSE, My Brain Stopped Working - Smarter Every Day 175. At about ...
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1answer
110 views

How long can afterglow last after a fireball?

I was watching the YouTube video Perseid Meteor Shower - Mojave Desert, California which looks East before sunrise, presumably in mid-August of 2016. I've made a GIF of a few seconds near the ...
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152 views

Long term temperature effects of an eclipse

I was surprised to see a very measurable difference in temperature at my home during the recent solar eclipse. The temperature was about 93 degrees fahrenheit but dropped to around 86 degrees. It ...

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