Questions tagged [expansion]

Questions about the increase with time of distance between two distant points in the Universe.

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Is matter and energy being created as the universe expands?

I had read about positive and negative energy in a Stephen Hawking book. In the book, he mentions that matter and energy being the positive energy, the negative energy is spread out in space. The ...
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Formula to calculate round-trip travel time based on current distance to far-away galaxy

Cross-posted from Physics Stack Exchange - original The question was closed as HW-like there. The Premise You travel at a constant velocity towards a far-away galaxy. You then travel back at the same ...
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Because the Universe is expanding, what is it taking up?

It is my understanding that the universe is expanding and that matter takes up space. While the universe only contains small percent of matter, wouldn't expansion indicate that the universe is ...
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How is it possible that a universe with mass does not have curvature?

I may know the answer to my question. Mass must curve the universe but the pressure due to energy density may curve the universe in the opposite direction, leading to a flat universe, if they exactly ...
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Universe expansion data validation

I am not an expert, just a enthusiast, so if possible please keep explanation simple. That said I have start reading about universe expansion and the idea seems to me revolutionary (the image of an ...
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Is there any theory suggesting the expanding universe may be coupled to another shrinking universe

Our Universe is supposed to be expanding. I was curious if there was any theory suggesting the expanding universe may be coupled to another shrinking universe?
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How many galaxies are predicted in the observable universe? Does it contain dwarfs? Is there any size-ratio diagram?

According to quite recent research the observable universe contains about 2 trillion galaxies ($2 \cdot 10^{12}$). But what is counted there? Does this number also contain dwarf galaxies? According to ...
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Does the radius of your cosmic horizon decrease as velocity increases?

If I was moving at c-1 meters per second, and was observing an object moving 2 m/s away from my starting point as a result of the expansion of the universe rather than classical velocity, would I ever ...
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Why are CMB peak heights sensitive to the physical densities

A very simple question: why should it be that the CMB power spectrum allows constraints to be placed on the combination of parameters $$\omega_c = \Omega_c h^2$$ $$\omega_b = \Omega_b h^2$$ as opposed ...
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What makes a star? [closed]

What are the properties of a star? How do astronomers classify the properties of stars?
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Recent research regarding if the local group of galaxies will remain bound to the Virgo Cluster?

The question of if the local group of galaxies will remain bound to the Virgo Cluster has been asked before (Is the local group bound to the Virgo cluster?). I am wondering if there is any more recent ...
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Is the age of the Universe really 13.8 billion years?

Ok, I know this has been asked by a lot of people, but my reason for asking this question is a bit different. Please read further. I was watching a video by Fermilab (Start at 6:30, at 8:30 he ...
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Could blackholes warping space-time create dark energy?

I think the effects of blackholes on the surrounding space is localised to a small area around the blackhole but I wondered if the largest blackholes at the centre of massive clusters could be a ...
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Could there really be a preferential direction to the speed of light?

This question is inspired by a recent video by Veritasium Why no one has measured the speed of light linked below. To summarize the video, Derek points out that it is impossible to measure the one-way ...
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Why does the Hubble flow does not carry photons with it?

I have this naive question. We know that the expansion of the universe "takes" or "carries" the galaxies with it, separating them, but this doesn't apply to photons. My guess is ...
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If an object 1 billion light years away emits light, does it take more than 1 billion years to reach us because of the expansion of the universe?

From page 7 of the recent (September 26, 2020) edition of Science News Magazine: Detected May 21, 2019, the gravitational waves came from a source about 17 billion light-years from Earth, making this ...
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Does time also pass more slowly for a galaxy that is traveling at relativistic speeds, where the speed difference is due to Hubble expansion?

If time passes more slowly, relative to Earth, for a traveler at relativistic speeds, say at .8c, traveling between stars inside this galaxy, does time also pass more slowly for a distant galaxy that ...
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Must time pass more slowly, relative to our inertial reference frame, inside galaxies that are currently located at half way to the Hubble Horizon?

Trying to understand simultaneity of events and time-dilation on a Universe scale, I would like to know must time pass more slowly, right now, relative to our current inertial reference frame, inside ...
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How can something infinitely big have expanded from an infinitely small?

Please help me reconcile what I see as contradicting theories: The universe began with the Big Bang and expanded from an infinitesimally small point. The universe is infinite. How can something ...
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What was the the value of the Hubble constant at the time of the CMB's 'release' (i.e., 379,000 years after Big Bang)?

What about its value roughly 9 billion years after the Big Bang, when dark energy started to 'take over' and accelerate the expansion of the universe? Is there a timeline or chart somewhere that shows ...
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Intuitive explanation for why the Doppler effect (and red-shift) happens?

I was looking for an intuitive explanation as to why the Doppler effect happens. I haven't found any, but this is what I thought: -Waves emitted travel at a constant speed -The source emits a wave -If ...
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Intuition about Hubble's Law

I have recently learnt about Hubble's Law and this is my understanding of it: Galaxies move away from us at a rate that is proportional to their distance from us. So, considering an arbitrary unit of ...
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Can expansion of space cause the motion of galaxies, does expansion of space do effect motion of our sun around center and earth around Sun?

I'm just wondering that expansion is anyway related to in effecting motion of a star under the galaxies ? Planets are currently revolving around sun in helix motion, if galaxies has motion as well ...
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Will the “fabric of space time” rip from expansion?

I'm quite familiar with the fabric of space time theory and as I've been quite lonely these past few weeks, I started thinking that since the universe is expanding and since the "fabric" is the ...
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Definition of space - to cope with “space expansion”

I've searched quite a lot but found no satisfying definition, so please: How do we actually define space when talking of "space expansion"? Isn't it just a metric, a dimension we measure, instead of ...
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What will be the eventual result of the Milky Ways future mergers?

I am wondering, after the Milky Way merges with Andromeda and other near by dwarf galaxies and globular clusters, will it then merge with galaxies in the Virgo cluster and even Laniakea? And if so ...
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Galaxies stay at same place but it's the space that splits the galaxies apart [duplicate]

Galaxies stay at same place but it's the space that splits the galaxies apart. Is my understanding correct? As per my understanding. Galaxies moving apart at high speed is due to the increase in ...
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If the distance between galaxies is increasing and the speed of light is constant will the most of the light from the universe ever reach us?

Will the light from other galaxies ever reach us if the universe is expanding?
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With the expansion of the universe is time also increasing?

With more space being created would there be more time in that new region formed? Is the over all universe increasing in time? This is my first question so go easy on me. PS. Would that also mean that ...
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Why is the Cosmic Microwave Background evidence of for a hotter, denser early Universe?

In his book Gravitation and cosmology, Steven Weinberg says that CMB makes it "difficult to doubt that the universe has evolved from a hotter, denser early stage". In my understanding, the ...
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Expansion of the universe speeding up

I know that the expansion of the universe is speeding up, but is there an equation to measure this? Also, what is the cause of this?
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Why is constant velocity drift not an accepted explanation of Hubble expansion?

Edward A Milne at the Oxford University proposed that what Hubble was observing was simply a natural sorting of random galactic motions. If a group of galaxies formed together moving at various ...
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Any theories about universal expansion due to action at the universal event horizon?

I'm curious if there are any theories about the increasing rate of the expansion of the universe that are centered around gravitational pull from matter outside the event horizon of either the ...
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Expansion of the universe and visibility of distant galaxies [duplicate]

The universe expands at an accelerating rate, which makes me wonder if at a certain point the speed of expansion between two points will exceed the speed of light. In that case, it might eventually ...
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Does the gravity oppose to the Universe expansion?

I'm trying to understanding the very basic of the current cosmology. I searched in the old questions but I found nothing that answers specifically to my questions. As far as I understand, we have to ...
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Why does the Supernova 2006cm give a very different value for the Hubble constant? Why doesn't it increase error bars for the Hubble constant?

The Supernova 2006cm has a redshift of 0.0153 which translates into a recession speed of 4600 km/s. It has a distance modulus of 34.71 which translates into a luminosity distance of 87 Mpc. This ...
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At what cosmological redshift $z$, does the recession speed equal the speed of light? How is it calculated?

At what cosmological redshift $z$, does the recession speed equal the speed of light? What equations are used to calculate this number (since at large redshifts, $z=v/c$ won't apply)? [The ...
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Why do we expect Type Ia Supernovae to be brighter in a decelerating Universe than what has been observed?

This seminal review paper in the PNAS by Robert P. Kirshner (https://www.pnas.org/content/96/8/4224) says the following: If the universe had been decelerating—–in the way it would if it contained ...
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Difference between 3D real space and 3D redshift space?

With regards to cosmological simulations (e.g., N-body dark matter only simulations), I've seen people talk about the positions of objects (halos, galaxies) in the simulation in terms of 3D real space ...
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Can expansion of space blueshift galaxies with respect to one another?

Suppose we have two galaxies in an otherwise devoid space, and suppose the galaxies are gravitating. Suddenly, dark energy kicks in, and accelerated expansion of space begins ... (1D force diagram. ...
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Universe expansion

I'm reading the book "The theory of everything". In the second chapter it says the Universe is expanding, and we know this because the measurements made using the Doppler effect of other ...
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Cosmological redshift - How do we know it's not caused by the observer's time dilation?

Instead of cosmological redshift being caused by the metric expansion of space, why couldn't cosmological redshift be caused by our perspective moving faster in time? Said another way, if the ...
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Cosmological redshift vs doppler redshift

I'm reading Harrison's "Cosmology: Science of the universe" because Harrison focuses on the distinction between cosmological redshift (he calls it expansion redshift) and the Doppler redshift. He ...
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Is the eventual heat death of the universe due to the expansion of the universe?

I am reading about the accelerating expansion of the universe and something struck me. The observation that things further away were accelerating away faster and that early observations made it look ...
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Do gravitationally bound (e.g. orbiting) objects really resist the expansion of space?

Thinking about the expansion of space, it is commonly explained that gravitationally bound objects (like galaxies and galaxy clusters) will not be affected by the expansion of space (dark energy). I ...
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Will intergalactic travel be impossible in roughly 15 billion years?

Even if we (or aliens somewhere in the universe living at that time) somehow invent something that can go just short of the speed of light, will intergalactic travel still be impossible in roughly 15 ...
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If the space is expanding near the speed of light or the speed of light, why Andromeda is approaching or coming near to our galaxy (Milky way)? [duplicate]

Space with distance of 1megaparsec is expanding with rate of 70km/s, and if space with a distance of 4296 megaparsec is expanding at rate of 300,720km/s, then why Andromeda is coming to us? Even there ...
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How are constraints on dark energy improved the most?

Today we have various data available from independent probes to constrain dark energy, i.e. its equation of state $w$. These include Type 1a supernovae, BAO, CMB, large-scale galaxy surveys, etc. Are ...
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Does the expansion of the universe increase with distance?

I read something in a book the other day which has gotten me really confused. They were talking about the expansion of the universe, and if I understood it all, they said that the expansion of the ...
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Has the Big Crunch been ruled out?

If the dark energy equation of state $\omega$ evolves with time, and becomes larger, this would result in decelerated expansion and eventually a Big Crunch. If $\omega$ decreases with time, becoming ...