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Questions tagged [expansion]

Questions about the increase with time of distance between two distant points in the Universe.

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Are there other proofs of the expanding universe apart from the redshift?

The theory of the expanding universe is so widely accepted, that the redshift is sometimes used as a measure of distance to far away galaxies. But is it still possible that the redshift is caused by ...
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Time-frame regarding cosmic expansion and the bound state of the Virgo Cluster

Due to accelerating cosmic inflation, other galaxies and galaxy clusters will eventually race toward the Hubble horizon apparently away from us, placing them effectively out of our sphere of influence....
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Is the universe always expanding

Currently we observe that the universe is expanding. And this expansion even goes faster and faster. Why do we know (or presume) that this expansion started slowly at a singularity (i.e. big bang) ...
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Why Is The Expansion of The Universe Allowed To Move Faster Than Light? [duplicate]

Why is the expansion of the universe allowed to faster than light if everything that moves within a vacuum can't reach the speed limit of light? I've read that astronomers looked at the distance ...
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1answer
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From CMB anisotropy data observed in 1992, did astronomers figure out that the universe should be accelerating before its discovery in 1998?

CMB anisotropy was measured in 1992. I assume that astronomers, then, like now, would have been able to deduce the cosmological constant and things like that from the CMB anisotropy data. Then, from ...
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2answers
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how do we know the universe is STILL expanding?

According to Hubble more distant galaxies are moving away faster but since the light took billions of years to reach us we should say they WERE moving away faster billions of years ago. How do we know ...
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1answer
62 views

How can the universe be expanding? [duplicate]

I assume expansion implies an increase in the volume of the universe. But if the volume of the universe is increasing, does that not imply the area it is expanding into's volume is being reduced?
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Expansion ofthe Universe [duplicate]

If the universe is expanding how come Andromeda is heading for us? In isolated spatial areas does gravity overcome universal expansion? What is the gravitational force between us and Andromeda?
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Is the acceleration of the expansion of the universe a direct observation or an interpretation?

Is the acceleration of expansion we observe with supernovae direct or is this an interpretation according $\Lambda$CDM model ? I mean what we observe is luminosity distance versus redshift, so to see ...
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How to calculate how much a galaxy moves from its coordinate at redshift 0 to redshift 1?

I have two simulation snapshots in my hand at redshift 0 and 1. I know x, y, z coordinates of the galaxies in both redshifts 0 and 1, however there is no way for me to identify a single galaxy in both ...
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2answers
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Light beam (1 photon) in the limited universe?

If our universe is not infinite, what happens with the light beam (or photon) when it will travel through the whole universe? For example, observable universe according to wikipedia has diameter 93 ...
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2answers
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Does the edge of the Universe travel faster than the speed of light?

The Universe is expanding faster than the speed of light then does that mean matter at the edge of the universe is also traveling at the speed of light or are ether opposite sides of the universe are ...
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Influences from outside the observable universe explaining dark energy and expansion?

Could some influence from outside the observable universe be causing the expansion?
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Are galaxies expanding away from us at more than the speed of light? [duplicate]

If you go to the following video, at this certain time: https://youtu.be/Iy7NzjCmUf0?t=435 you will see that the narrator says: "We simply don't know what else is out there because the light from ...
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1answer
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How far would EGSY8p7 be away now?

Apparently EGSY8p7 is the object with the longest light travel distance, 13.2 gly or a redshift of z = 8.68 (Wikipedia). So the light took 13.2 billion years to travel to us from that object, but we ...
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1answer
340 views

Angular Diameter Distance

The definition of the angular diameter distance is the ratio of an object's physical transverse size to its angular size. However when I was reading my textbook, Astrophysics in a Nutshell by Dan Maoz ...
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1answer
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Where can I find source data for the graph of metric expansion over time, as shown in this ESA web page?

This web page from ESA/Hubble, shows the size of the universe over time. (I know that "size of the universe" is a gross simplification and open to multiple definitions and ambiguity, but this kind of ...
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1answer
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What is the present day radius of the observable universe?

The radius of the observable universe is generally taken to be ~45 billion light years. However, we see distant galaxies as they were many millions of years in the past, so there are two ways I can ...
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2answers
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Does the accelerating expansion of the Universe contradict Hubble's law?

Hubble's law gives a linear relationship between the distance to a galaxy and it's recessional speed. Observations of distant type 1a supernovae showed that their red shift (and therefore their ...
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0answers
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Does the expansion of space imply an increase in the dimensional volume of objects? [duplicate]

Does the expansion of space only occur in the space between celestial objects or is it effecting the dimensional volume of the objects themselves? In simple terms is my ruler expanding due to the ...
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1answer
67 views

Is it fruitful to search for a correlation between rates of in-falling matter in black holes and the expansion rate of our universe? [duplicate]

To my understanding, white holes are hypothetical objects that are time-reversed black holes; black holes gravitationally "suck in" matter whereas white holes "spit" matter back out. As such, I think ...
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3answers
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How is the Milky Way on a collision course with Andromeda when the universe is expanding? [duplicate]

At some time in the future it is said our galaxy will collide with Andromeda. Yet at the same time the universe is expanding at a ever-accelerating pace. Using the old raisin-in-the-baking-loaf-of-...
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2answers
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Does Flat Universe mean even distribution?

I've read through all the other related answers to "flatness" questions but I need a bit more clarification. I understand that a triangle in a 2D universe would not equal 180 degrees in both a closed ...
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3answers
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How can the universe be expanding faster than speed of light? [duplicate]

So the story goes like this: A long time ago, 13.799±0.021 billion years to be exact, something happened. It was a big bang, loud explosion and universe came to existence. It grew and grew, and now ...
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2answers
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Is an expanding universe equivalent to a universe in which everything is shrinking?

Why do we always think of the universe as expanding? Surely, from our perspective an expanding universe would look exactly the same as a universe in which everything is shrinking away from ...
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2answers
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Does gravity repel when dark energy is involved?

So I am currently reading the book We have no idea by Jorge Cham and Daniel Whiteson. In one of their chapters they talk about how gravity is a force that only attracts and doesn't repel, most of the ...
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1answer
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Does wavelength affect redshift caused by the metric expansion of space?

Does wavelength play a role in cosmological redshift? Do we see certain wavelengths affected less by expansion or notice any delay in arrival of certain wavelengths? How accurate are any observations?...
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1answer
174 views

How much does a linear lightyear of space expand in a year?

Now that we know that the universe is expanding, how much does a linear lightyear of space expand currently in a year?
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3answers
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How did scientists come to the conclusion that it is space that is expanding?

How did scientists come to the conclusion that it is space that is expanding and not galaxies moving away from each other as in a giant explosion?
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2answers
492 views

Velocity of most distant galaxies

Taking Hubble's law into account, what is the velocity of the most distant galaxies relative to Earth? Yes, I know that it is actually space that is expanding, (so, it is not their real velocity), but ...
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1answer
413 views

Total mass of light? [duplicate]

I know that light is considered as energy, and as such has a mass. So it is certainly taken into account in universes models and calculations. So I'm wondering: How much of the total mass of the ...
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1answer
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If the density of nebular distribution increases symmetrically in all directions, how does space curvature explain it?

Edwin Hubble, in The Observational Approach to Cosmology, wrote Thus the density of the nebular distribution increases outwards, symmetrically in all directions, leaving the observer in a unique ...
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How does dark energy remain constant?

According to cosmological constant, dark energy should have a constant density but since the universe is expanding so is the volume of the universe and so should the mass of dark energy. But how does ...
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2answers
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Could Dark Energy be a “Cosmic Gravity Background”

Could dark energy (the accelerating expansion of the universe) be the result of gravity from the dense past universe "pulling" outward from all directions? The universe theoretically started out ...
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1answer
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Expansion of Space in the Very Distant Future

Given a nearly infinite timeline, would the expansion of space eventually cause individual particles to become "unobservable" from one another due to the vast distance and increasing rate of expansion ...
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How long will it be until the nearby groups of galaxies are receding at speeds faster than light?

And subsequently how long will it be until we can never see them again?
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1answer
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Will we start seeing galaxies disappear due to Universe expansion? [duplicate]

Does the fact that universe is currently expanding at an accelerating rate means that far far away objects (FAO) might start disappearing with time, set aside the "red shift"? I'm saying this ...
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1answer
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How can the observable universe shrink in a Big Rip?

As far as I know, the Big Rip occurs when the scale factor reaches infinity in a finite time. This will only happen in a universe dominated by phantom energy (i.e. a universe with an equation of state ...
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1answer
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Can the diminishing energy of the CMBR be the source of dark energy?

I was just told the CMBR energy diminishes with time. Can it be that the lost energy is somehow transferred to spacetime, causing the expansion to accelerate?
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1answer
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How can space expand in accelerating speed when dark energy is constant?

I came to know that dark energy is constant.As mentioned in the Friedmann equations How can a constant energy cause an ...
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2answers
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How can gravity lead to the Big Crunch scenario?

According to modern cosmology, space is expanding, causing proper distances (but not comoving distances) to increase between galaxies. In the Big Crunch hypothesis, gravity halts and reverses the ...
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Does the redshifting of photons from the Universe's expansion violate conservation of momentum?

The energy-momentum relation, $$E^2 = m^2c^4 +p^2c^2,$$ lets us derive the momentum of a massless particle: $$p = \frac{E}{c} = \frac{h\nu}{c}$$ However, the expansion of the Universe redshifts ...
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Why does disorder (entropy) increase in the same direction of time as that in which the universe expands?

Why does disorder (entropy) increase in the same direction of time. as that in which the universe expands? Why can't entropy decrease in the same direction in which it increases ?
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How is the Universe's Expansion Accelerating if the Hubble Constant is Decreasing?

I am just getting into the field of cosmology and was wondering what it means practically to say that the Hubble Constant is decreasing while the expansion rate of the Universe is accelerating. I am ...
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1answer
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Centerless expansion or a matter of perspective [duplicate]

I get this question a lot: Where is the center of the Universe? I see this question on the internet all of the time: Where is the center of the Universe? Now I have a question regarding all ...
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1answer
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Why are galaxies distributed as walls and voids, or spider webs?

I have wondered why the "walls and voids" of the cosmological galaxy distribution seem to resemble a "foam", like rising bread that's ready to fall, with "voids" corresponding to empty bubbles in the ...
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Cosmology: about the equations of expansions

Suppose we assume that the gravitational constant is varying with time: $$G=G_0 e^{-\frac{t}{t_0}}$$ where $t$ is the time from the Big Bang, and $G_0, t_0$ being some constants. Assuming matter-only ...
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Where does the energy of light go, when it red-shifts?

When talking about the expansion of the universe, it is said that it can be proven by the red-shifting of light.(As we would need higher than lightspeed to get this redshift by the Doppler effect) I ...
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In km/h, what actually is the “speed” of Andromeda away from us: cosmologically?

Andromeda is about 2.5 million ly away. Actually, in this universe, at what "speed" (in km/h) are two objects separating cosmologically - I mean strictly due to the "expansion of the universe" - if ...
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Did Gaia actually generate complete light curves for 212 Cepheids in other galaxies?

The recent BBC news item Gaia clocks speedy cosmic expansion says that a recent Gaia measurement of 212 Cepheid variables in other galaxies within the local group yields a Hubble constant of ~73 km/s/...