Questions tagged [general-relativity]

Questions about relativistic theory of gravity. General relativity describes gravity as a geometrical property of space and time.

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Cosmological redshift - How do we know it's not caused by the observer's time dilation?

Instead of cosmological redshift being caused by the metric expansion of space, why couldn't cosmological redshift be caused by our perspective moving faster in time? Said another way, if the ...
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148 views

How does time work beyond the cosmic event horizon?

The faster you move through space, the slower you move through time - the calculations show that as you approach lightspeed, time comes to a standstill. How does time work beyond the cosmic event ...
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Why does the outside edge of a Kerr black hole ergosphere rotate at the same speed as the inner edge?

Reading through the Wikipedia on a Kerr black hole ergosphere, and this nice question on the maximal spin rate of a black hole leads me to ask: why does the outer edge of the ergosphere rotate at the ...
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Have more recent LIGO/VIRGO gravitational wave measurements narrowed down the speed of gravity further?

This answer to How precise are the observational measurements for the speed of gravity? says: ...in 2013 a Chinese group built a model using Earth's tides that helped them narrow it down. ...
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Relativistic Mercury orbit around the Sun

My question is the following,would the scalar of precession of Mercury orbit be the same if Mercury orbited Sun in the oposit direction?
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What is the effect of this expanding universe on the energy density of it?

We know that our universe is expanding i.e. volume of the universe is getting larger with time with total energy being conserved. My question is whether the energy density is getting smaller with ...
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Can you create a black hole using kinetic energy?

Imagine you have a particle accelerator that you can crank up to arbitrarily high energies. Because of General Relativity, the particles get heavier and heavier as you dump more energy into them. ...
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Is TDB monotonic? Does it or any of its derivatives have yearly discontinuities with respect to an atomic clock?

This in-depth answer mentions that ...TDB is updated every year. As technology improves, these subtle updates change the timing of past events. This makes me wonder... Does this updating result ...
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Does space being at right angles to time imply that the expansion or contraction of each occurs in a direction opposite the other's?

The Minkowski diagrams that are employed to illustrate Special Relativity depict changes in the motion of objects through the dimensions of space as occurring within a field (that's otherwise divided ...
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If space is negative energy and matter is positive energy then does that mean the universe is finite?

I was reading a book by Stephen Hawking, it was written that universe is made up of 2 ingredients,i.e., space and energy and space was the negative energy, so they add up to 0. But since space is ...
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What is the coordinate acceleration for pure radial motion?

As seen in this answer and also in this book chapter 6, page 6-10 expression 22, when you are falling in radially from being at rest at infinity your velocity in coordinate time, as seen from a ...
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What does “negligible mass” mean in the formulation of geodesics equation?

Wikipedia says: According to Einstein's theory of general relativity, particles of negligible mass travel along geodesics in the space-time. Does that "negligible mass" only refer to particles ...
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If a photon were 1 Planck length away from the event horizon of a blackhole, would it be able to escape the blackhole's gravitational pull?

I understand that one could theoretically replace the sun with a blackhole without affecting the orbits of the planets. This leads me to believe that a blackhole isn't a "cosmic vacuum cleaner" so ...
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Can gravitational waves pass through a black hole?

As the title says, what happens when a gravitational wave approaches a black hole? I would presume that something interesting happens because of the way spacetime works near black holes but I have no ...
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Can the range of the observable universe be extended through an intermediary?

I understand that the so called observable universe has a limit we cannot see through. My question is whether we might get information through an intermediate hypothetical actor located halfway to ...
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Do the “schwarzschild metric” or the “isotropic metric” fit the Event Horizon telescope data on Messier 87 better?

The "Schwarzschild solution" in "Schwarzschild metric" looks like: $$\text -c^2d\tau^2=-\left(1-\frac{2GM}{rc^2}\right)c^2dt^2+\left(1-\frac{2GM}{rc^2}\right)^{-1}dr^2+r^2(d\theta^2+\sin^2\theta\,d\...
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Looking at the Expanding Universe through the lens of relativity [closed]

The basis and most observable metric for how the universe is understood to be expanding at an accelerating rate is the red shift in observable light. I am assuming it has been thought about or maybe ...
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Does matter accelerate to the speed of light as it approaches the singularity?

$$v_\mathrm e=\sqrt{\frac{2GM}r}$$ If we understand the escape velocity to be the speed needed to escape from the 'surface' of a gravitational object described by the above equation. It is equally ...
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Dropping a pebble into a black hole [duplicate]

If one were to drop, say, a pebble, from a sufficient distance, into a black hole. The pebble would continue to accelerate until it were just short of the speed of light. In the next moment it's speed ...
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Is space a thing? [closed]

Based on my extent of knowledge relating to astrophysics, I once thought space is a thing, which can be twisted a long side with Time regarding masses of objects(According to relativity theory). But ...
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Necessary steps to calculate photon's path by using null geodesic equation

Can anyone please give me an explanation on how to calculate photon's path by using the null geodesic equation? N.B. I know all of the non-zero values of Christoffel symbols.
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Do falling bodies ever slow down?

I've had some discussions recently about black holes, and the issue of infalling bodies taking forever to reach the event horizon. That's essentially what Einstein said in his 1939 paper on a ...
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Time Dilation and Particle Decay

I am teaching myself astronomy and I'm working on a basic problem regarding time dilation around black holes. The question is basically this: if a neutron were ejected from a nucleus at a distance of ...
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Why doesn't the vertical light beam get out of a black hole?

I'm asking this question as a follow-up to if light has no mass why is it affected by gravity? Imagine you’re standing on a gedanken planet, shining a laser beam straight up into space. The light ...
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If light has no mass, why is it affected by gravity?

Light doesn’t accelerate in a gravitational field, which things with mass would do, because light has a universally constant velocity. Why is that exception?
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Does the Milky Way's movement through space have spacetime implications?

The way I usually see spacetime explained, it says that if you just sit still, you are moving at 0kph and so you are moving at maximum speed through time (ie. time for you is flowing at maximum speed)....
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What is the exact meaning of vicinity of Black hole or a disk? the same as inside?

What is the exact meaning of vicinity of Blackhole or a disk? Is this the same as inside the horizon for black holes? If so, why people don't say inside of BH, simply. What is the difference? I use ...
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What can be learned from, or noted in this LIGO Orrery video?

The Ars Technica article Physicists detected gravitational waves from four new black-hole mergers notes that This brings the total number of events detected by LIGO and Virgo to 11. It also has a ...
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Questions on dark matter observations in galaxy clusters

For cluster of galaxies we can observe velocity distributions and so we can deduce mass from multiwavelength observations. I suppose total mass of the cluster could be deduced by observing velocities ...
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Why can't we travel faster than light? And is the theory of relativity absolutely flawless? [closed]

Why can't we travel faster than light? And is the theory of relativity absolutely flawless?
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How to compare the observation with the theoretically predicted result?

On the Wikipedia Article on “Geodesics in general relativity”, it says the following: “Thus, for example, the path of a planet orbiting a star is the projection of a geodesic of the curved 4-D ...
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Is there a limit to how fast spacetime can bend/warp around an accelerating object?

If in the future a spaceship can accelerate to nearly the speed of light, will it encounter any kind of resistance/drag from the spacetime in front of it not being able to bend/warp fast enough around ...
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Astrophysical Jet Size?

I am wondering about what is the estimated size of astrophysical jet that shoots out from a black hole, I don’t know if it is determined by the size of a black hole. What would classify a black hole ...
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What exactly is the accretion disk?

Is it really possible for material such as dust, gas and other stellar debris that come near the black hole, doesn't fall into it, instead forms a flattened band of spinning material?
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Can black holes be used as an energy source

I’ve heard that black hole will be rotating continuously which stores a huge amount of energy in its rotation. Will this energy be accessible, since the rotation is imposed on the space outside the ...
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Existence of wormholes and exotic matter [duplicate]

Is it really possible for bending of space time to travel to another distant place in universe. Wormhole has two mouths which one is a black hole and another is a white hole which could let us out. ...
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Why does earth not collide with the sun? [duplicate]

Gravity is most accurately described by the general theory of relativity (proposed by Albert Einstein in 1915) which describes gravity not as a force, but as a consequence of the curvature of ...
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Dark Matter Curvature

Does Dark Matter affect Space Time Curvature? If so, then what is the formula to calculate space time curvature due to dark matter?
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Is there any significant time dilation on other planets orbiting the sun?

Is there significant time dilation on the other planets orbiting the sun? Would an 'hour' experienced on earth actually be 59 or 61 minutes on other planets, depending on their distance to the sun? ...
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do rockets follow a straight path but is looks curved because of space time?

Does the path of a rocket or anything going straight up look curved because the mass of the earth is curving space-time? If we assume the earth, the rocket and all the celestial bodies whose ...
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If universe is expanding why is the distance between planets not increasing?

General relativity tells us space is expanding.Then why does the distance between planets and heavenly bodies increase?
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Is the age of the universe relative to an observer's location in that universe?

According to Wiki the age of the universe is 13 billion years old, and I was taught that background radiation made the universe uniform in all directions. Doesn't this define a sphere of space in the ...
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Are wormholes even possible?

While this question could fall under Space Exploration or Physics (I don't have the "best" reputation on THAT forum), I feel that it is very much related to how the universe itself functions, ...
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Reference frames in relativity?

I've recently been introduced to relativistic celestial Reference Systems (RS) such as the Geocentric Celestial Reference System (GCRS) and Barycentric Celestial Reference Systems (BCRS). So, for ...
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How long would a near-light-speed trip to proxima centauri take from the traveler's and the earth-observer's perspectives?

Lets say the spaceship is traveling at .9c to Proxima Centauri. How long does this trip take from the observational standpoint of the passenger vs. the observer from Earth?
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Is it coincidence that Einstein predicted exactly twice the outcome of Newton for the gravitational deflection of light? [duplicate]

During a solar eclipse Sir Arthur Eddington measured the deflection of star light by the Sun. Einstein predicted a deflection of 1.74 arc seconds, but according to Newton the deflection should have ...
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Will biological process be disrupted under strong gravitational time dilation?

This question is raised by someone I've discussed with, after watching the movie "Interstellar", in which a clip showing Cooper and Amelia landing on Miller's planet near a super-massive blackhole and ...
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Can gravity cause a Big Crunch, if the cosmological principle holds?

Say we have a closed universe that follows the cosmological principle. As a result, mass is distributed equally and, if as far as I know, gravity should have no net effect on the movements of galaxies ...
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Is there a better explanation of Hawking radiation?

I'm writing a piece on Hawking radiation, and find I have something of a problem. The "given" explanation which I find on Wikipedia and elsewhere is unsatisfactory: "Physical insight into the ...
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Maximum spin rate of a black hole?

I have just been watching a podcast called "Deep Astronomy" and the discussion was about a super fast spinning black hole discovered with the NuSTAR space observatory. This black hole was modeled with ...