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Questions tagged [general-relativity]

Questions about relativistic theory of gravity. General relativity describes gravity as a geometrical property of space and time.

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Is space a thing?

Based on my extent of knowledge relating to astrophysics, I once thought space is a thing, which can be twisted a long side with Time regarding masses of objects(According to relativity theory). But ...
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Necessary steps to calculate photon's path by using null geodesic equation

Can anyone please give me an explanation on how to calculate photon's path by using the null geodesic equation? N.B. I know all of the non-zero values of Christoffel symbols.
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Do falling bodies ever slow down?

I've had some discussions recently about black holes, and the issue of infalling bodies taking forever to reach the event horizon. That's essentially what Einstein said in his 1939 paper on a ...
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1answer
72 views

Time Dilation and Particle Decay

I am teaching myself astronomy and I'm working on a basic problem regarding time dilation around black holes. The question is basically this: if a neutron were ejected from a nucleus at a distance of ...
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Why doesn't the vertical light beam get out of a black hole?

I'm asking this question as a follow-up to if light has no mass why is it affected by gravity? Imagine you’re standing on a gedanken planet, shining a laser beam straight up into space. The light ...
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If light has no mass, why is it affected by gravity?

Light doesn’t accelerate in a gravitational field, which things with mass would do, because light has a universally constant velocity. Why is that exception?
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Does the Milky Way's movement through space have spacetime implications?

The way I usually see spacetime explained, it says that if you just sit still, you are moving at 0kph and so you are moving at maximum speed through time (ie. time for you is flowing at maximum speed)....
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66 views

What is the exact meaning of vicinity of Black hole or a disk? the same as inside?

What is the exact meaning of vicinity of Blackhole or a disk? Is this the same as inside the horizon for black holes? If so, why people don't say inside of BH, simply. What is the difference? I use ...
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What can I learn from, or notice in the LIGO Orrery video?

The Ars Technica article Physicists detected gravitational waves from four new black-hole mergers notes that This brings the total number of events detected by LIGO and Virgo to 11. It also has a ...
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Questions on dark matter observations in galaxy clusters

For cluster of galaxies we can observe velocity distributions and so we can deduce mass from multiwavelength observations. I suppose total mass of the cluster could be deduced by observing velocities ...
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114 views

Why can't we travel faster than light? And is the theory of relativity absolutely flawless? [closed]

Why can't we travel faster than light? And is the theory of relativity absolutely flawless?
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37 views

How to compare the observation with the theoretically predicted result?

On the Wikipedia Article on “Geodesics in general relativity”, it says the following: “Thus, for example, the path of a planet orbiting a star is the projection of a geodesic of the curved 4-D ...
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Is there a limit to how fast spacetime can bend/warp around an accelerating object?

If in the future a spaceship can accelerate to nearly the speed of light, will it encounter any kind of resistance/drag from the spacetime in front of it not being able to bend/warp fast enough around ...
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Astrophysical Jet Size?

I am wondering about what is the estimated size of astrophysical jet that shoots out from a black hole, I don’t know if it is determined by the size of a black hole. What would classify a black hole ...
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What exactly is the accretion disk?

Is it really possible for material such as dust, gas and other stellar debris that come near the black hole, doesn't fall into it, instead forms a flattened band of spinning material?
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Can black holes be used as an energy source

I’ve heard that black hole will be rotating continuously which stores a huge amount of energy in its rotation. Will this energy be accessible, since the rotation is imposed on the space outside the ...
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Existence of wormholes and exotic matter [duplicate]

Is it really possible for bending of space time to travel to another distant place in universe. Wormhole has two mouths which one is a black hole and another is a white hole which could let us out. ...
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Why does earth not collide with the sun? [duplicate]

Gravity is most accurately described by the general theory of relativity (proposed by Albert Einstein in 1915) which describes gravity not as a force, but as a consequence of the curvature of ...
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69 views

Dark Matter Curvature

Does Dark Matter affect Space Time Curvature? If so, then what is the formula to calculate space time curvature due to dark matter?
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Is there any significant time dilation on other planets orbiting the sun?

Is there significant time dilation on the other planets orbiting the sun? Would an 'hour' experienced on earth actually be 59 or 61 minutes on other planets, depending on their distance to the sun? ...
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1answer
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do rockets follow a straight path but is looks curved because of space time?

Does the path of a rocket or anything going straight up look curved because the mass of the earth is curving space-time? If we assume the earth, the rocket and all the celestial bodies whose ...
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234 views

If universe is expanding why is the distance between planets not increasing?

General relativity tells us space is expanding.Then why does the distance between planets and heavenly bodies increase?
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754 views

Is the age of the universe relative to an observer's location in that universe?

According to Wiki the age of the universe is 13 billion years old, and I was taught that background radiation made the universe uniform in all directions. Doesn't this define a sphere of space in the ...
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Are wormholes even possible?

While this question could fall under Space Exploration or Physics (I don't have the "best" reputation on THAT forum), I feel that it is very much related to how the universe itself functions, ...
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Reference frames in relativity?

I've recently been introduced to relativistic celestial Reference Systems (RS) such as the Geocentric Celestial Reference System (GCRS) and Barycentric Celestial Reference Systems (BCRS). So, for ...
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How long would a near-light-speed trip to proxima centauri take from the traveler's and the earth-observer's perspectives?

Lets say the spaceship is traveling at .9c to Proxima Centauri. How long does this trip take from the observational standpoint of the passenger vs. the observer from Earth?
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Is it a coincidence that Einstein predicted exactly twice the outcome of Newton? [duplicate]

During a solar eclipse sir Eddington measured the declination of star light by the Sun. Einstein predicted a declination of 1.74 arc seconds, but according to Newton the declination should have been 0....
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Will biological process be disrupted under strong gravitational time dilation?

This question is raised by someone I've discussed with, after watching the movie "Interstellar", in which a clip showing Cooper and Amelia landing on Miller's planet near a super-massive blackhole and ...
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Can gravity cause a Big Crunch, if the cosmological principle holds?

Say we have a closed universe that follows the cosmological principle. As a result, mass is distributed equally and, if as far as I know, gravity should have no net effect on the movements of galaxies ...
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314 views

Is there a better explanation of Hawking radiation?

I'm writing a piece on Hawking radiation, and find I have something of a problem. The "given" explanation which I find on Wikipedia and elsewhere is unsatisfactory: "Physical insight into the ...
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Maximum spin rate of a black hole?

I have just been watching a podcast called "Deep Astronomy" and the discussion was about a super fast spinning black hole discovered with the NuSTAR space observatory. This black hole was modeled with ...
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On the geodesics of the metric $ds^2=-\rho^2d\alpha^2+d\rho^2$ and the constant $l=\rho^2\frac{d\alpha}{d\tau}$

In my assignment I have to deal with the 2D spacetime metric $$ds^2=-\rho^2d\alpha^2+d\rho^2.$$ During this assignment we have shown that the constant $$l=\rho^2\frac{d\alpha}{d\tau}$$ is a constant ...
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152 views

What is length of the universe on lights perspective

According to Einsteins theory of special relativity, when something is travelling close to light speed, travel path is contracted. When the traveller is light itself, does it see the travel path ...
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302 views

In what ways does the mass and energy of the milky way curve space time?

Space is curved by mass (or more precisely by mass and momentum as described by the stress-energy tensor). The milky way system has a lot of mass and a lot of energy. In what ways is space-time curved ...
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Latest cosmological parameters

I'm looking for the latest values (with uncertainties) of the four main cosmological density parameters $\Omega_i$ : \begin{align}\tag{1} \Omega_{\text{mat}} &={} ?, &\Omega_{\text{rad}} &=...
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Time measurement outside solar system?

The sun is used to determine and measuring time in our solar system. What if we were to travel outside the solar system i.e. to interstellar space, or other galaxies and other celestial bodies (out of ...
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How can gravity lead to the Big Crunch scenario?

According to modern cosmology, space is expanding, causing proper distances (but not comoving distances) to increase between galaxies. In the Big Crunch hypothesis, gravity halts and reverses the ...
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Does the redshifting of photons from the Universe's expansion violate conservation of momentum?

The energy-momentum relation, $$E^2 = m^2c^4 +p^2c^2,$$ lets us derive the momentum of a massless particle: $$p = \frac{E}{c} = \frac{h\nu}{c}$$ However, the expansion of the Universe redshifts ...
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Which of the following statements about gravitational waves are true? [closed]

a) The emission of gravitational waves from merging black holes is predicted by Einstein's general theory of relativity. b) The first direct detection of gravitational waves, announced in 2016, came ...
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Are there upper or lower mass limits for black holes?

Natarajan & Treister (2008) describes a practical upper limit for black hole masses at $\sim 10^{10} M_\odot$. This is all due to the black hole's interactions with nearby matter. However, is ...
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is it possible to prove some version of the “cosmic censorship hypothesis” of Roger Penrose which proposes that this is impossible?

Can singularities not hidden behind an event horizon, known as "naked singularities", arise from realistic initial conditions, or is it possible to prove some version of the "cosmic censorship ...
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Has the velocity of photons coming from black holes already been measured?

Has the velocity of photons, which are coming from black holes, already been measured? I am not aware of such measurements. The reason for the question is the following: If space-time near black ...
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137 views

Why is the CMB not simply travelling parallel to us? [closed]

When we look to the distant farthest reaches of the universe we see light that was emitted at the big bang 14 billion years ago. But the universe was tiny back then so that light, which is only ...
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Can we measure/detect GR light bending during solar eclipse using ordinary equipment?

Suppose an amateur astronomer finds himself watching Solar Eclipse. He can see the stars around totality. Is Sun's GR effect strong enough for the amateur astronomer to be able to tell that a ...
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Does the mass of a collapsing star change?

Does a star, when collapsing into a neutron star, or even a black hole, pick up any significant relativistic mass due to its rapid collapse rate?
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Would a Einstein–Rosen bridge change size and/or position in an expanding Universe?

I appreciate that a Einstein–Rosen bridge has never been observed but since there are some valid theories in General Relativity I thought I'd ask this. Would the start and end point of a Einstein–...
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230 views

How does an absolute horizon form before the apparent horizon?

If I understand it correctly, the apparent horizon is the boundary between where light directed outwards will move outwards, and light directed outwards will move inwards. Even if light is moving away ...
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Gravitational field released during supernovae

During the collapse of a star at the commencement of supernovae, the intense pressures force fusion and fission to create the heavier elements and release vast amounts of energy. As this energy/mass ...
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Could the Sun's bending of light be measured on photographic plates before Einstein's prediction?

It was predicted from Newtonian physics already in the 18th century that gravity should bend light, but not by as much as general relativity predicts. This was first confirmed during a solar eclipse ...
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Light that travels eternally because of inflation?

What happens with electromagentic waves that are emitted into intergalactic space, but reach not any object because of inflation? Lets assume that photon A and photon B are emitted. Photon B hits ...