Questions tagged [geology]

Questions related to earth processes or related processes and principles.

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4
votes
1answer
56 views

How to calculate the thickness of the ice crust on a frozen ocean planet/moon?

How do I calculate the thickness of the upper ice layer on cold ocean worlds like Europa, Enceladus, Ganymede, ...? I'm asking this for a programm I'm currently writing. Given/Known is: mass, radius, ...
2
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1answer
287 views

Could Mars have oil?

What events could have to happen to Mars (which is thought to once look like Earth) that may have depleted the atmosphere and erase all proof of life ever existing at least on the surface? I know an ...
1
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1answer
99 views

Could an Earth-sized planet be cold?

This question poses the question of why the Earth is still hot after 4.5 billion years, and the primary reasons were: (1) heat from when the planet formed and accreted, which has not yet been ...
4
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1answer
381 views

Why is the Moon smooth near the equator and bumpy near the poles?

It looks as if it was polished by applying emery to its spinning equator. My initial guess was that it was simply an illusion caused by light direction, but the terrain map shows the same phenomena. ...
2
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1answer
199 views

Io: Why so much sulfur?

Io is the only body in the Solar System whose crust is dominated by sulfur and its compounds. Carbon and nitrogen are also very common in the universe but we don't see them or their compounds in Io's ...
4
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2answers
286 views

Appearance of sun at geologic past

After origin of Earth ( 4.54 billion years ago ) to today; what are the changes through-which the sun undergone with time? , ( if seen from Earth. ) I'm doing some palaeobiology-landscape rendering; ...
8
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1answer
245 views

How much mass do the volcanoes of Io erupt past escape velocity?

While trying to do some calculations to answer this quesion, I got stuck missing a crucial piece of data: I have no clue how much mass the volcanoes of Io manage to throw out of the gravity well of ...
3
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1answer
152 views

How massive must a rocky body be to liquify adequately to eliminate internal mass concentrations that could disrupt natural satellite orbits?

Maybe a slightly weird question, and maybe more appropriate for some future geophysics SE, but I feel like this is what questions like Do moons have moons? are really driving at, and it just almost ...
2
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2answers
3k views

What is the temperature 55 km beneath the surface of Mars?

What is the temperature 55 km (34.18 miles) beneath the surface of Mars? The reason I ask is that I want to know if it might be habitable for a possible future colony if they could dig that deep (...
1
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1answer
2k views

What does the surface of Mercury look like?

What does the surface of Mercury look like? What color is it (I have seen some images portraying it grey and some a light brownish color), and would the surface be dusty like the Moon, smooth, or ...
4
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1answer
183 views

Determining North-South Line Via Watch Method: Theory & Reason

I recently read that if you're in the northern hemisphere and have an analog watch, then you can point the hour hand at the sun and know that a south line lies between (bisection) the hour hand and ...
1
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1answer
161 views

How significant is a planet's density to the formation of life?

I'm doing some writing set on a fictional earthlike planet that for reasons needs to be substantially larger than Earth but can't have substantially higher gravity. I've been able to compromise with a ...
2
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1answer
92 views

How are boulders formed on asteroids?

For example: Are they soft landed meteorites? Or do they form from melted material during a violent impact? Or are they the result of some kind of erosion process?
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2answers
260 views

Do we have knowledge of the geology of the moon?

With reference to the Ebb and Flow lunar satellites, was there any data about its geology? Is there a central core, or is it homogenous?
3
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1answer
133 views

Long term effect on rocks of high pressure and temperature?

The mean surface temperature of Venus is about 460 C and the pressure is about 92 atmospheres. Assuming this situation (or similar) has prevailed for millions of years what changes (if any) would ...
1
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2answers
180 views

Why do rocks on other solar system bodies that have an atmosphere seem to be flat?

Images taken by landers on Titan and Venus and Mars show landscapes where rocks, to me at least, are surprisingly flat. Being used to walking around in forests with roundish meter sized boulders, I'd ...
3
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1answer
314 views

Radioactive decay is the main source of the earth's interior heat: fact or theory? [closed]

It's believed the main reason that the interior of the Earth hasn't cooled down in 4 billion years is because of the ongoing decay of radioactive elements that keeps adding more heat than is lost to ...
11
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2answers
2k views

Why are most lunar maria on the visible side?

Is there any reason why the Earth side of the Moon has enormous plains and mountains, while the far side contains just few small ones inside largest craters?
5
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2answers
125 views

Would it be possible to calculate the expected frequency of impact craters of all sizes on Earth

Can the expected frequency of all sizes of impact craters on Earth be calculated based on the preservation of impact craters seen on the Moon? Taking into account the difference in gravity and ...
11
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2answers
394 views

Why is the Earth's center still hot after millions of years? [closed]

Why didn't the center of the earth cool after millions or billions of years? What keeps it hot?
11
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3answers
6k views

Why isn't Earth a perfect sphere? [closed]

In general, almost everyone describes Earth as an perfect sphere, but in reality it isn't a perfect sphere. Is there any specific reason why Earth is not perfect sphere ?