Questions tagged [orbital-elements]

Questions about the parameters needed to specify the characteristics of an orbit.

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63
votes
4answers
8k views

How does the Earth move in the sky as seen from the Moon?

I just want to be sure I am visualizing this correctly, because it seems odd. The Moon is tidally locked to the Earth but there are wobbles to its motion due to libration. So from a point on the ...
11
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1answer
355 views

Orbital velocity of a planet - why is my calculation off by about 10%?

I am not sure if I am doing something wrong, or misunderstanding Reider and Kenworthy (2016). I'm just trying to reproduce the orbital velocities listed in Table 1. The second paragraph of Section II ...
9
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1answer
291 views

Why is Neptune true anomaly decreasing?

So I've been having fun with trying to determine where the perihelia of different planets are (using JPL Horizons). And by the time I got to Saturn, something weird started happening. I've noticed ...
7
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2answers
626 views

How do I calculate the positions of objects in orbit?

In a model of the solar system, given the Sun is at the point $(0, 0, 0)$, an given the six orbital elements for each object in orbit ($a$, $\epsilon$, $i$, $\Omega$, $\omega$, $M_0$), how can I ...
7
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1answer
234 views

Orbital eccentricity variation of the other planets?

On Earth, it's fairly well published, mostly in climate change related articles, that the Earth's orbital eccentricity operates on a 413,000 year cycle with roughly 90,000–125,000 year variation ...
7
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1answer
175 views

Saturn's tropical year?

What is the value of Saturn's "tropical year" (as opposed to its "sidereal year"). I am seeing it listed as 10 days shorter (10,747 days) than the sidereal year (10,759.22 days). How could this be ...
5
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4answers
525 views

Inclination in Kepler's laws

So, you can determine the location of an object in an orbit at any given time via Kepler's laws, but how do you determine the orbital inclination at any given point in time?
5
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1answer
727 views

Simulate an orbit with orbital elements

I want to simulate the orbits of the planets from our solar system. I want to use orbital elements to calculate the current position(xyz) at a time t. The simulation doesn't have to be too exact, but ...
4
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1answer
300 views

Orbits using Newtons laws

I am making a small orbit simulator. I figured out Kepler's laws and know how to work with them to "update" an orbit based on time. So now I want to know how I can describe orbits with newton laws. ...
4
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1answer
125 views

Calculating obital velocity from radial velocity

I'm not really a physicist so I don't know if it's possible to get the real orbital velocity of a star from its radial velocity. I'm working on a paper for school and I want to get the mean velocity ...
4
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1answer
74 views

Clearing the Neighbourhood: Definition of 'Orbital Region'?

I am trying to determine how wide a 'neighbourhood' a planet is expected to clear. However, the Wikipedia article on the matter provides no clarity, simply stating that a planet is expected to clear ...
4
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1answer
397 views

How would one calculate the synodic period between 3 planets?

I don't know if this is the correct term, but how would one calculate the time it takes for 3 planets to lie on the same line?
4
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1answer
138 views

Is there a preference for orbital planes of planetary systems to be aligned with the galactic disk?

I'm not sure for how many planetary systems we have a fairly good idea of the inclination and "argument of periapsis" of the orbital plane. I'm assuming there are a number of them that we can estimate ...
4
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2answers
395 views

Sun's orbital elements

I have the orbital elements of an asteroid's heliocentric motion (the orbit has non-zero inclination and is elliptical). But I want to simulate the motion of the sun around the asteroid. So without ...
4
votes
1answer
808 views

Why would the Earth's solar analemma would be still a figue eight even if Earth's orbit was circular?

The Earth's solar analemma is a diagram showing the deviation of the Sun from its mean motion in the sky, as viewed from a fixed location on the Earth. ... For [a planet] with a circular orbit but ...
4
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0answers
33 views

Are occultation observations used/useful for orbit determination?

The IAU Minor Planet Center lists $(486958)\space 2014 \space MU_{69}$ "Ultima Thule" as having an uncertainty parameter of 2, based on the observation arc of 851 days, from its discovery in 2014, to ...
3
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4answers
3k views

Can one approximate the semi-major axis of an orbit as the average orbital distance for eccentric orbits?

Kepler's 3rd Law (regarding the relation between orbital period and the semi-major axis of an orbit) applies to all elliptical orbits. But as I understand it, the only reason it is safe to use the ...
3
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2answers
42 views

Night-Day Cycles in S-Type Planetary Systems

I am a writer and space enthusiast. For a story I am currently writing I would like to have a planet which orbits a star which resembles the sun, which in turn orbits another star. In this situation ...
3
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3answers
103 views

Why is it impossible to estimate the inclination of an exoplanet with the Radial Velocity Method?

The formula of the radial velocity is: $$v_i= V - K(\sin(f_i+\omega)\ + e\sin\omega),$$ with $$K = \frac{m_p}{m_s+m_p}\frac{na\sin i}{\sqrt{1-e^2}}.$$ Being $V$the systematic velocity of the system, ...
3
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1answer
229 views

Can a binary star optically “orbit” a planet?

I was watching a science fiction anime from the mid 70's. In it, there was a star orbiting a planet. Since this seemed impossible, and I had never heard of it, I looked on the internet to see if this ...
3
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2answers
672 views

Does natural satellite(s) of a planet affects its orbital velocity around a star?

Please excuse me for a lay question. As we know, to calculate the orbital velocity, we take the mass of the orbiting body, the mass of the body being orbited and the distance between the two bodies ...
3
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2answers
115 views

How was this interstellar fireball observed and its trajectory analyzed?

The short, interesting paper Discovery of a Meteor of Interstellar Origin describes a proposed discovery of a second interstellar object. This one hit the Earth, and was discovered not by telescope, ...
3
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1answer
225 views

How to calculate planetary position over vast time spans

Ignoring the turbulent beginnings of our solar system I wonder if there is a meaningful way to calculate the relative position of the planets of our solar system 100 million years into the future ...
3
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1answer
500 views

Are ascending node of sun, the point of intersection of prime meridian and equator and center of earth all collinear?

I did a bit of googling but couldn't find the exact answer, so are the following 3 points collinear or not ? 1_center of earth 2_ascending(or descending) node of sun 3_point of intersection of ...
3
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2answers
100 views

How to calculate the argument of perihelion for exoplanets with incomplete orbital elements?

I'm trying to simulate the Kepler-444 exoplanetary system using data from this website. The problem is that there is no argument of periapsis parameter for the Kepler-444 system, so while I think I'm ...
3
votes
1answer
285 views

Calculate the orbital phase when plotting the Radial Velocity data of a transitting exoplanet

I'm not quite sure how I find the orbital phase ($\phi$) of a transitting exoplanet. For example, I have this RV data in this article: First of all, I don't know how that phase or "cycles" is ...
3
votes
1answer
148 views

Given sunrise, noon, sunset, longitude and latitude can I calculate the “hight” or “ascension” of the sun?

I'm trying to make a simple app for my own use to be able to check which of my favorit restaurants have outdoor seating sun and for how long etc. Given the data in the title (sunrise, noon, sunset, ...
3
votes
1answer
238 views

Why planet's orbit is not perpendicular or random ?

Why planet's orbit is not perpendicular or random ? It always seems each planet is revolving on the same geometric-plane around the star.
3
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1answer
265 views

Calculate apsides without knowing eccentricity

How would one go about determining the apsides of an orbit, knowing only the current distance between the 2 bodies, the orbital velocity, and the period? Every formula I've seen requires eccentricity, ...
3
votes
1answer
76 views

Orbital speed is (vector) sum of tangential and normal speed?

Orbital speed definition in wiki does not state clearly - it is just tangential speed component or square root of squares of normal and tangential speed (full speed vector). When we say that moon ...
3
votes
1answer
209 views

How to correctly create planetary orbits from kepler elements

I would like to build a gravity model (with 3D graphics) that would build the orbit of the planets based on orbital elements input and the gravity calculation for each element. My initial code is ...
3
votes
2answers
591 views

What is the effect of the axial precession on the orientation of the planet's orbits?

I am working on an online application to visualize the positions of the planets and to calculate their ephemerides (you find it here, but it is not complete yet). I do not have much knowledge in ...
3
votes
1answer
294 views

Math for calculating the terrestrial longitude directly under the sun with time

I'm trying to calculate the longitude on the earth where it's noon at some time. (That is, the longitude which is coplanar with the plane defined by the sun and the earth's axis.) Here is my python ...
3
votes
1answer
148 views

How many observations does it take to determine the orbit of a TNO

Several observations of a distant solar object must be taken before determining its orbit, but in the case of objects discovered beyond Neptune's orbit, just how many are required over what period of ...
3
votes
1answer
63 views

periodic inclination change circumbinary planet

I am studying circumbinary planets and I made a python model to calculate certain properties of the orbits, and when I calculate the inclination I get a sine wave. I do not see a way to predict the ...
3
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1answer
109 views

Accuracy of Laplace Method for determining orbital elements

Recently I had to implement Laplace method and apply it to 3 observations of Mars (10 days in between two observations). The results were pretty good, with discrepancies with real data well below 5% ...
3
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0answers
467 views

Earth-Centered Earth-Fixed coordinates with respect to heliocentric coordinate system at vernal equinox

I am trying to calculate the position of a point on the Earth's surface with respect to the Sun's center at a certain date and time. For what I am trying to do it is OK to ignore precession of Earth's ...
2
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1answer
2k views

How Wide is Earth's Roche Limit?

My question is simple: Given the gravitational relationship between Earth and the moon, how wide is Earth's roche limit? How close does the moon have to orbit before getting disintegrated by Earth's ...
2
votes
1answer
86 views

How Long Will Earth's Year be When Our Sun Goes Red?

We live in a planet that orbits 93 million miles from a G-type main-sequence star, or "yellow dwarf". That is far enough for a revolution of 365 days. Such is the case of Kepler's Third Law of ...
2
votes
1answer
52 views

In System KIC 9246715, How Far Does One Star Orbit the Other?

I was going to ask if it's physically possible for one red giant to orbit another, but fortunately, I have just found such a thing--a red giant binary system known only as KIC 9246715. In this ...
2
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1answer
129 views

Name for 1-e and 1+e terms?

In several equations of orbital elements (such as the determination of true anomaly from mean anomaly), the terms 1-e and 1+e appear. These are the ratios of the orbital periapsis and apoapsis to the ...
2
votes
1answer
838 views

What is exactly the “longitude of the perigee”

Some moon phase calculation algorithms (apparently derived from Duffet-Smith's book, example here) seem to use a parameter called "longitude of perigee at epoch". What exactly is this? Can I assume ...
2
votes
1answer
56 views

Perihelion dates and parameters

I have to find the perihelion and aphelion data for the 20th century for Earth. I found this table http://www.astropixels.com/ephemeris/perap2001.html, but no such table for the past century. I ...
2
votes
2answers
867 views

Determining distance from semi-major axis and eccentricity

I am trying to obtain the distance covered by an object in orbit around the earth within a specified amount of time past its perigee passage. The object is in an elliptical orbit with eccentricity 0.2 ...
2
votes
1answer
546 views

Orbital Elements Transformations

I'm a third year undergrad, and for the project I'm doing this summer, I need to figure out the Earth's position and velocity from the moon's point of view. From the reading I've done, it seems like ...
2
votes
1answer
604 views

Orbital elements of solar system using Pyephem

I'm using the astrometric python module Pyephem, and I would like to get the orbital (keplerian) elements for the solar system planets. The only values I found is the heliocentric latitude, ...
2
votes
1answer
569 views

Roll, Pitch and Yaw of Orbital Planes

I have been reading about celestial mechanics and particularly about planetary orbits. I understand that a planet's orbit can be tilted (pitched) with respect to the Earth's ecliptic and that it might ...
2
votes
1answer
945 views

Derivation of the formula for longitude of ascending node for a satellite

I've been looking into the document IS-GPS-200H to understand how to calculate satellite location in the ECEF coordinate. I am having problem understanding the formula to derive $\Omega$, the ...
2
votes
2answers
1k views

Convert orbital elements to positions and velocities

I've written a quick and dirty n-body simulator, but currently it requires initial positions and velocities. I've been looking for a way to convert Keplerian orbital elements to positions and ...
2
votes
1answer
36 views

Where can I find data on Mercury's orbit to fit a model to? [duplicate]

I have a project in which a Monte-Carlo method is used to find the optimal parameters for some model that is fit to a data set. I want to fit a model for the orbit of Mercury using this methods, but I ...