Questions tagged [planetary-atmosphere]

Atmospheres of planets, moons, and other solar system bodies excluding stars. For those, use "stellar-atmosphere" instead. For influences of Earth's atmosphere on astronomical observations use "atmospheric-effects". For other questions about the Earth's atmosphere, Earth Science SE is probably the right site. https://earthscience.stackexchange.com/

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Which Venus scientists discovered the hole in the ozone layer?

After 21:00 in Venus: Earth’s Evil Twin or Just Misunderstood? (live public talk) from the JPL YouTube channel the person being interviewed "Sue Smrekar, Rocky ...
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How does the Hubble Space Telescope measure the speed of the wind inside Jupiter's Great Red Spot?

Space.com's Jupiter's winds of change show increased storm speeds in Great Red Spot and Hubblesite.org's Hubble Shows Winds in Jupiter's Great Red Spot are Speeding Up both link to the recent open ...
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Would tidally locked Earth-like exoplanets necessarily have hot pole/cold pole atmospheric circulation?

A tidally locked planet orbiting a red dwarf star in its habitable zone would have a rotational period equal to its orbital period, on the order of days or weeks. Given a thick enough atmosphere ...
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Maximum distance at which planetary atmospheres can be analyzed during transits?

Is there a limit for how far away you could make a spectroscopic analysis of a planet when it transits its star, to detect bio markers and industry markers? What would the limit be with current ...
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At what point does an astronomical body's surface stop being gas giant-like and start being sun-like?

I've generally seen brown dwarfs depicted as more massive and slightly wider Jupiters in varying colors with banded cloud structures, sometimes hot enough to be visible glowing. I've also seen red ...
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...but where did Mars' atmosphere actually GO?

In this answer to How is space a vacuum when there are planets, gases, etc? I mention that most of Mars' original atmosphere was swept away by the solar wind after the planet lost its magnetic field ...
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What discoveries were made thanks to Pioneer orbiter data?

Based on the Wikipedia page Pioneer Venus Orbiter (also known as Pioneer Venus 1, Pioneer 12, 1978-051A) there were quite a few scientific instruments on board. But what scientific results were ...
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What if you lit a fire on a planet whose atmosphere consists of 50% oxygen and 50% a flammable gas?

If a planet's atmosphere consisted of 50% oxygen and 50% a flammable gas (e.g. methane) at 1 atm, could you put the entire atmosphere on fire by lighting a single candle?
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How can we count layers of atmosphere? [closed]

How can we count layers of atmosphere even though there are no lines or boundaries which separate atmosphere?
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Were K2-141b and WASP-63b selected as the first two exoplanet atmospheres for JWST to look at during its first year of observations? If so, why?

In The Observatory @Donald.McLean linked to Scientists will peer at first galaxies with James Webb telescope which says in part: The new telescope will augment science performed by Hubble, not ...
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Tidally locked Venus, is it possible and consequences?

Suppose, Venus becomes tidally locked. Will its dark side cool enough so that the CO2 from the atmosphere to precipitate in liquid form to make an ocean? Also, I wonder, how close Venus is to becoming ...
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Where should I look at if I had a 25m parabolic radio reflector?

I am most interested in (exo)planets with atmospheres, see e.g. my question Requirements to resolve position of Jovian Whistlers up to magnitude of Red Spot with amateur radio equipment? So if I had ...
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Is there a link between the amount of swirling and vorticity in a gas giant's atmosphere and its distance to its Sun?

This is an empirical observation of mine: I have noticed that out of the 4 gas giants in our Solar System, Jupiter's atmosphere has the most visible swirls and complex cloud patterns, followed by ...
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What is the Milne-Eddington Approximation?

In this paper: Planet temperatures with surface cooling parameterized it states in the "radiation model" the following: The Eddington–Milne approximation relates $T_0$ and $T_e$ through the ...
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How much more mass would Mars need to currently have enough pressure for liquid water and oxygen?

My question is whether Mars just about failed to meet the threshold or missed it by a lot. It's been dry for 3 billion years. How much bigger would it have needed to be to buy it that extra time? Let'...
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Earlier references of Mars' arsia mons elongated cloud?

The weird long cloud on Mars is finally revealing some of its secrets is an article by Chelsea Gohd from space.com referencing ESA's Mars Express news. The Arisa Mons Elongated Cloud (AMEC) is ...
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When examining an exoplanet's atmosphere is the star's emission spectra or planet's light used?

My understanding of the main method we use to figure out an exoplanet atmosphere composition is that when a exoplanet transits their sun, visible light passes through the planet's atmosphere, and ...
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What is the underlying nature of the dark spot found on Uranus?

What is the nature of bright spots found on Uranus? actually quotes Space.com's Uranus Has a Dark Spot which says: During the past decade, many bright spots have been seen on Uranus in both red and ...
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Effect of particulates on the visibility of stars?

I am looking for a (mathematical) relationship - either empirical or theoretical - which quantifies how the visibility of celestrial objects decreases with increasing amount of particulates in the air....
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Did the Moon have a substantial atmosphere in the past?

The layer of gas surrounding the Moon is very thin. It is a surface bound exosphere, where particle-particle collisions are rare. In the past, the Moon was more geologically active, with eruptions ...
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What replenishes the lunar atmosphere?

It is often said that the Moon doesn't have an atmosphere. But there is an envelope of gas surrounding the Moon, albeit a thin one, so the Moon has at least an exosphere. The Moon doesn't have its own ...
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What does the amino acid found in the atmosphere of Venus mean?

An amino acid is a part of DNA, but it has only been found on Earth. Is the amino acid maybe from one of the space vehicles that has orbited, scanned, or surveyed Venus? How can a part of DNA survive ...
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Extraterrestrial snow?

What do we know about extraterrestrial snow? On which (exo)planets or (exo)moons do we have direct hints for its existance? This is indeed a children's question, but I struggle to answer it ...
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Have auroras on Titan been observed yet?

After reading the very insightful introduction to auroras on other planets I started digging and found various questions and some answers here on the same topic, see below. What I did not figure out ...
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Characteristics of Venus' jet streams?

Since the Voyager missions, the atmosphere of Jupiter received great attention, its jet streams made it into text books on geofluid mechanics, including their characteristics like the how they meander,...
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How do we get to know the total mass of an atmosphere?

Since atmospheres don't end abruptly but gradually get thinner the higher you go, I wonder how we can get the total mass of an atmosphere if we don't know where exactly it ends. E.g. the Earth's ...
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Does lightning on Venus affect the chemical composition of the clouds?

It is established that lightning occurs on Venus due to the presence of sulfuric acid clouds. Does this constant electric discharges and possible electrolysis affects the composition of the clouds on ...
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Do brown dwarfs have stripes?

Brown dwarfs (BD) are often depicted with stripes. brown dwarf Jupiter Pictures of BD resemble Jupiter but brown dwarfs ...
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What is the nature of bright spots found on Uranus?

The following text is from space.com which was written during the time of discovery of the first dark spot on Uranus: During the past decade, many bright spots have been seen on Uranus in both red ...
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Can the Sudarsky's gas giant classification be applied to ice giants?

Based on the temperature of a gas giant around another star, I have come to understand that it is possible to guestimate its appearance; a classification scheme for gas giants developed by David ...
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How are sulfuric acid clouds able to completely cover Venus?

It is a well-known fact that an opaque layer of highly reflective clouds of sulfuric acid completely shrouds Venus preventing its surface from being seen from space in visible light. This is mentioned ...
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If water vapor is always blown away into space, how is it able to create chemical compounds on Venus?

This is the follow-up of this chem.SE question. According to Wikipedia, water vapor on Venus is present in trace amount (20 ppm). There are multiple reasons why Venus has very low water content: The ...
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What other hints of possible life in Venusian atmosphere have we dismissed?

Now that phosphine has probably been discovered in relatively large quantities in the Venusian atmosphere, I heard that there have been other unexplained phenomena (i.e. dark patches) seen. Does ...
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Is dust the only reason why the Martian sky is so bright?

The atmospheric pressure on the surface of Mars is 0.00609 atm on average and 0.012 atm at most in the Hellas Basin. On Earth, at these pressures, which are found at altitudes about 30-35 km (19-22 mi)...
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Can concentration of gas in exoplanet atmosphere be found out from wavelength and absorbing radius from spectral data?

I was working on exoplanet spectral data from which I need to infer the concentration of gases. However, the exoplanet spectroscopy data contains only absorption wavelength and absorption radius. Is ...
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What is the difference between aurorae and electroglow?

One of the discoveries of Voyager 2 at Uranus was a phenomenon called "electroglow", which as I understand it is related to charged particles interacting with the atmosphere that cause the ...
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How to find the temperature of a planet accounting for the atmosphere?

Recently, I started writing a program to generate star systems, and I need a formula to find the approximate surface temperature of a planet. I know of several formulas for this, for example this one ...
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Air molecules per cubic foot at a certain altitude above the surface

The Earth's and other celestial bodies' atmospheres become thinner the higher you go. Imagine you were able to see atoms/molecules. At what altitude above the Earth's and Mars' surface would you see ...
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At what distance could a supernova damage the Earth's ozone layer?

As from my latter question it seems Betelgeuse might be much closer than the usually presumed 640 light years. It might be as close as ~440 ly. Suppose it is, would this have any dangerous effects on ...
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Why wouldn't massive torrents freeze on Mars?

I am currently reading the Cambridge Guide to the Solar System. In chapter 8, section 8.7, they explain that massive torrents of water created outflow channels on the surface of Mars in the past. The ...
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How far can we detect lightning in radioastronomy?

The wikipedia article on whistlers has this information: Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft detected whistler-like activity in the vicinity of Jupiter known as "Jovian Whistlers", implying the ...
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Can a single impact event trigger a runaway greenhouse?

Somewhat related to this question: Is the Earth going to evolve towards Mars' fate or Venus' fate? Human civilization may be fragile, but life itself is extremely resilient, with extremophiles and ...
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Would Europa be an ocean planet if it were in the habitable zone?

If a Europa-like body were in the Sun's habitable zone, let's say in an orbit between Earth and Mars, would the body become and remain a water ocean planet? In the habitable zone, the Sun would warm ...
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How does Io's atmosphere behave locally near volcanic plumes?

Io's surface air pressure is about $0.3 {\rm mPa}$ but Io's atmosphere is strongly variable, depending on whether it's on the near side or far side of Io (relative to Jupiter) and it collapses at ...
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Which moons do have neutrospheres?

Or in other words: which moons do have ionospheres but not surface-bound ones? The space beneath an ionosphere is called a neutrosphere. I only know of Titan. I know that the Galilean moons and Triton ...
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Why is there so little nitrogen in the Martian and Venusian atmospheres?

Why don't our neighbors have much nitrogen? You would think that, without 'nitrogen-fixing' organisms and such, there might be more.....
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Is Jupiter as opaque as it looks?

Although it is impossible to tell what is and isn't false color (aside from the adage that it probably is false). It's inarguable that no picture of a gas giant shows any depth or significant ...
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Why do gas giants have clearly delineated surfaces, whereas the Earth's atmosphere fades into space?

I've just seen this Forbes article. Why do gas giants appear to have clearly delineated surfaces, whereas the Earth's atmosphere fades into space? Is it just a matter of scale? Or is there some ...
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Why doesn't Titan have a carbon dioxide atmosphere?

Earth's primitive atmosphere had large amounts of carbon dioxide, as did the ancient Martian atmosphere. Venus's current atmosphere is no exception either. So why does Titan have next to none of this ...
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How many times can iron be detected for the first time in an exoplanetary atmosphere?

I see today that there's a story about the first detection of iron in an exoplanetary atmosphere, in this case in the atmosphere of the ultra-hot Jupiter KELT-9b. I remember there being a story a ...