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Questions tagged [spectroscopy]

Questions about the measurement of light waves whereby the wavelength is classified by its position in the electromagnetic spectrum.

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Reference: First spectrographic observations by Fraunhofer

In several books I find reported that the first scientist to perform spectrographic observations of celestial objects was Fraunhofer with the spectrographs he himself produced. I do not find though a ...
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Strong orange line in wood fire spectrum?

I just built a DIY spectroscope using a CD and after making some tests, I noticed a really strong emission line located in the orange-yellowish zone of the fire spectrum (specifically, burning wood). ...
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How do you fit a model SED to an observed galaxy spectrum with photometric data?

I have a spectrum of a galaxy from HST data and SDSS data (resulting in a nearly continuous SED from the FUV~1000 Angstroms through infrared). I have created a model SED with the galaxy simulation ...
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How do we know that the mass ratio of hydrogen and helium in the sun is approximately 3:1?

From what I learnt, we can find what elements are in the sun by analysing spectrums since each elements has same emission spectrum, and when you look at the sun's spectrum, you can see absorption ...
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Correction to inverse square law for cosmology

While reading about the discovery of quasars and the spectroscopic analysis of 3C 273 in this paper by Maarten Schmidt, I came across the following quote: At these distances, corrections to ...
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How to estimate uncertainty of measurements of equivalent widths?

I'm measuring equivalent widths of absorption lines using a spectrum of a star. I make two or three measurements of each line by making reasonable gaussian fits of the line with IRAF's splot tool. ...
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56 views

Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observing modes

I have been reading some literature on using the HST to take spectra of exoplanet atmospheres when exoplanets transit in front of their stars. The literature mention two modes of observations, '...
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Delete key does not always work in IRAF's xgterm on Mac

Sometimes it does not let me delete text in an xgterm terminal and outputs ^H instead. Example: Run IRAF: xgterm -e cl It opens the xgterm, there I type: <...
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54 views

What is the dimensions of the smallest object detectable by an optical fiber from a specific distance?

Optical fibers are well-known to observe astronomical objects, say, galaxies, to generate massive spectroscopic surveys. The galaxies are often very far from the optical fibers of a telescope. However,...
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Doppler Spectroscopy - Finding mass of an exoplanet

An astronomer, T observed the spectrum of a distant star X. The spectral lines were observed to have tiny blueshifts and redshifts regularly with a period of 1.27 years. T concluded that the star is ...
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Spectra and star identification [duplicate]

Are stellar spectra unique enough that they could be used to identify particular stars? If so, has any attempt been made to use them for navigation or equipment alignment?
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What might a CN filter be in the context of comet watching? Is it showing dust, or gas, or something else?

In this post on the website for the Comet Wirtanen Observing Campaign at wirtanen.astro.umd.edu, there's mention of a CN filter being used to observe the comet, and this cool GIF. What exactly is a ...
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Help understanding the false MRO observations of hydrated minerals on Mars

The Science News article An orbiter glitch may mean some signs of liquid water on Mars aren’t real begins: Some signs of water on Mars may have just dried up. Thanks to the way data from NASA’...
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What was the “optical illusion” that led to erroneous metal concentrations in stellar atmospheres in the galactic center?

Articles summarizing a recent result about certain heavy element concentrations in stars near the galactic center all say that earlier reports about high levels in stellar atmospheres were the product ...
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What is a pupil slicer, and how does it work with anamorphic optics in VLT's ESPRESSO Echelle spectrograph?

This excellent answer points to ESPRESSO, - Echelle SPectrograph for Rocky Exoplanets and Stable Spectroscopic Observations. From there I looked at the Instrument Description and Performance page. ...
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Why does D4000 affect stellar age?

From my understanding D4000 is a ratio between the 'flux densities between 4050 and 4250 Angstroms and that between 3750 and 3950 Angstrom', from Poggianti et al (1997). However I do not understand ...
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Why is H_delta prominent in type A stars?

I understand factually that H$\delta$ lines are most prominent in type A stars and less so in more extreme types of stars on the H-R diagram. However I was wondering the reason for why they are not ...
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What does the ']' in the spectral line “CIII] 1909 Å” mean?

The above emission line, as I understand, is a useful probe of early star-forming galaxies. However, I do not understand what the ']' to the right of the 'CIII' means. I could not find any online ...
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153 views

At what speed does something have to travel away from us for it to red shift enough that it becomes invisible to the human eye?

Are there stars, galaxies etc that we cannot see because they are traveling too fast and their spectrum is shifted below our visible range? From what I understand, red shift is caused by stars and ...
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115 views

Redshifting restframe SED

I have a template spectral energy distribution (SED) at z=0. I want to shift the template SED to an arbitrary redshift (z>0), how to do this in python?
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How is IR spectroscopy used to determine the composition of asteroids?

I am trying to understand how spectrometers or spectroscopy can be used to calculate the surface composition of asteroids for the purposes of asteroid mining.
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absorption line from the chromosphere

If I understand correctly, the H-alpha and Ca II K lines are absorption lines of the sun and allow to see the chromosphere. Following the Kirchhoff-Bunsen law, an absorption line is produced by a gas ...
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Determining line ratios in planetary nebula

I know that the line strength ratio tells us how hot the electron plasma in a nebula is, and also give information about the electron densities in the nebula. But how do you compute the line ratios? ...
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Where can I find a database of elemental spectra? [closed]

I know that spectroscopy can be used to analyze the light of stars to determine the elements causing their emissions in the visible spectrum, but this requires knowing the emission spectra of the ...
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43 views

What spectral feature was used to confirm that S0-2 is “single and available”? What is Brγ?

The Phys.org article Astronomers discover S0-2 star is single and ready for big Einstein test describes the results of a careful analysis of radial velocity measurements of the star S0-2, which orbits ...
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How does an Echelle spectrograph put such a long, high resolution spectrum into a square-ish format?

In order to obtain a very high resolution spectrum to resolve closely spaced lines, or to measure doppler shits, spectrographs are operated with very high dispersion. But photographic plates and CCDs ...
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Need help understanding stellar spectroscopy data from ESO

The European Southern Observatory webpage has a web page that has tabular spectrogram data from A. J. Pickles, University of Hawaii. There are over 130 .dat files there. Each one represents a ...
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Stellar electromagnetic signatures

By using only the electromagnetic signature of a star, could a star be distinguished with reliable accuracy from any other star? To elaborate a little, say we have a collection of about 200,000 stars. ...
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How are the ESPRESSO Echelle spectrograph's calibration “lines” produced?

The CBC News Technology and Science Q&A This ESPRESSO machine doesn't make coffee but scans the skies for habitable planets includes a nice description of ESPRESSO (Echelle SPectrograph for Rocky ...
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How does the ESPRESSO Echelle spectrograph fold the spectrum so nicely?

The CBC News Technology and Science Q&A This ESPRESSO machine doesn't make coffee but scans the skies for habitable planets includes a nice description of ESPRESSO (Echelle SPectrograph for Rocky ...
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Spectroscopy of Exoplanets [closed]

How is accurate spectral analysis of a planets atmosphere achieved, bearing in mind that its host star's resultant light emission is not a full spectrum?
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Source for Identification of Balmer Hydrogen Absorption Lines

I'm working on an assignment, where I have to classify stars using the raw data of the telescope. I'm now trying to calibrate the pixel to armstrong ratio, and for that I need to identify the ...
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853 views

Solar visible light spectrum

So the visible light from stars can be used to identify the elements in that star by looking at the spectral emission lines and comparing those lines to emission lines of various elements (and their ...
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How long would it take to collect a certain amount of photons? [closed]

So, I've received this question to solve, it's not a very advanced one, though advanced enough to cause headaches. The situation is as follows: Say, you are observing with a telescope with an ...
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Integral Field Spectroscopy vs Fabry-Perot Interferometry

Why are Fabry-Perot Interferometers (FPIs) and Fourier Transform Spectrographs (FTSs less common than Integral Field Spectrographs (IFS) nowadays? My understanding is that: With FPIs and FTSs you ...
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What forces expelled these huge clouds, then blocked further progress, yet allowed it to maintain its threads?

From Wikipedia and NASA: Caption: NASA: S74-15583 (July 1973) --- A huge solar eruption can be seen in this Spectroheliogram obtained during the Skylab 3 mission by the Extreme Ultraviolet ...
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How do elements with only one shell emit light? [closed]

Electrons move to higher energy levels and drop back (electron migration). When they drop levels, photons are emitted and the wavelength/frequency emitted is based on how many levels are dropped. My ...
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How to convert theoretical template spectrum from luminosity density to flux density units?

I'm working with galaxy spectral templates (e.g., Bruzual & Charlot 2003) which seem to always come with y-axis units of $L_{\odot}$/A and x-axis units of Angstroms. Thus the y-axis is a ...
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Can some stars not emit any energy in the visible spectrum?

Stars convert mass into energy. Even converting the slightest mass into energy is immense because the speed of light is so great and $E = mc^2$. This means that stars have to emit large amounts of ...
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Was the discovery of six exoplanets around one star as “easy” as counting six peaks in the FT?

The phys.org article Scientists make huge dataset of nearby stars available to public describes the release of a publicly accessible database of Echelle radial velocity measurements; The LCES HIRES/...
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Why do different instrumental filters use different magnitude systems (Vega vs AB)?

Suppose I wanted to construct the spectral energy distribution (SED) of an object. Further suppose I observe this object through the 9 broad-band filters using the Subaru Suprimecam (just for an ...
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How does glass affect taking solar spectra?

In this case I'm using a CCD camera mounted telescope pointed at the clouds to take solar spectra and was wondering how the telescope being pointed at the clouds through a double gazing (two layer) ...
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Are blue and red shift visible?

When looking into the sky at night using my bare eyes, I see that stars appear in different colors. From my understanding this is caused by different chemical compositions of those stars which show up ...
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wavelength-based IFU data cubes VS velocity-based IFU data cubes

I have 2 simulated IFU data cubes of the same observation, let's say A and B. The 3rd dimension of cube A is in wavelengths. In order to create cube B I just rebinned cube A in log-wavelengths and ...
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Have we Observed Continuum Emission from Neutron Stars?

Have we detected continuum optical emission from any rotating neutron stars that do not have an accretion disk dominating the light? I ask because I know we have observed Doppler broadening of ...
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1answer
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What's the differences between one-dimensional spectrum and two-dimensional spectrum?

mostly, we use the one-dimensional spectrum. But sometimes we use two-dimensional spectrum, what's the differences between them?
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51 views

What's the slit and slot on EIS(EUV Imaging Spectrometer) instrument of Hinode?

There are two slits and two slots on EIS, are they just four types of grating?
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How to calculate the S/N of IFU or long-slit galaxy observations

I would like to calculate the Signal-to-Noise ratio (SNR) of long-slit or integral field unit (IFU) observations of H$\alpha$ emission. I can calculate the SNR or each individual spectrum, just fine. ...
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What (actually) does “peculiar periodic spectral modulations” refer to in this preprint?

I saw this ArXiv preprint after reading about it in the popular media. I can not even understand the beginning of the introduction (much less the whole paper): INTRODUCTION A Fourier ...
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Why does Gaia use only calcium NIR lines for stellar radial velocity measurements?

I was reading this overview article about the Gaia spacecraft and I saw the following statement: These spectra provide radial velocity information that are used to study the kinematic and dynamic ...