Questions tagged [stellar-astrophysics]

Questions about inducing chemistry, physics, and many more branches of science into astronomy.

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2
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1answer
46 views

Why doesn't star size distribution conform to space rock size distribution?

The number of space rocks is exponentially related to the size of the rocks. There are more small space rocks than big ones. Stars are most commonly the size of the sun, big and smaller stars are rare,...
3
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1answer
46 views

Why could Quasi-stars (“black hole stars”) have only existed when everything was hydrogen and helium? (no metal “contamination”)

This informative answer to What was the absolute limit to the possible sizes of the first stars formed from “primordial material with no metals”? led me to Wikipedia's Quasi-star; Formation and ...
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1answer
42 views

Comparing Star Formation rate in different galaxies

I was looking for some scale to compare my result of star formation rate in order to find out whether it is moderate or high or low, but I couldn't find any scale. Is there any paper related to such ...
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2answers
416 views

What was the absolute limit to the possible sizes of the first stars formed from “primordial material with no metals”?

This answer to Why don't or (can't) stars be more than 325 or so times the mass of the sun? What limits their size? includes the following: ...The upper limit you refer to is for compositions similar ...
3
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1answer
40 views

How to determine arrival time delay given dispersion measure?

In an online textbook, the following formula is given to calculate the arrival time delay between two frequencies, $v_1, v_2$ in a dispersed radio pulse: $$t_1 - t_2 = 4.15 \cdot DM [(v_1/\text{GHz})^{...
4
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1answer
2k views

death of a red dwarf star / minimum mass needed for a white dwarf?

OK, first, I know there's a variety of sizes and types of red dwarf stars and the universe is too young for any of them to have reached the end of their main sequence phase yet, so it's all ...
5
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3answers
548 views

If a white dwarf collides with a giant star, could it create a TZO?

Thorne–Żytkow objects (TZOs) form from collisions between neutron stars and main sequence or giant stars. Ultimately, the neutron star becomes the "core" of the giant star. However, could this also ...
6
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1answer
383 views

How much more life could the Sun acquire via star lifting?

It has been proposed before that we could use this technique to remove hydrogen from the Sun to lower it's rate of fusion and extend it's life, so it doesn't fry our planet. I am wondering how much ...
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17 views

Can massive stars end up as post-AGB?

Recently I've found that some post-AGB objects are spectrally classified as hot luminous stars. For example, in the Toruń catalog of post-AGB objects, the star LSE 63 is listed as both a post-AGB and ...
0
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1answer
24 views

photon gas pressure and Independence on refraction index

Brief context: when studying Stellar Structure one of the main goals, aside of determining equations that describe quantities of interest of the system, is to also determine equations of state that ...
5
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1answer
115 views

Would stars have formed in the Universe if atomic hydrogen couldn't make molecular hydrogen?

I just saw this YouTube video made by PBS Studios. There they explain that $H_2$ can reduce the traslational kinetic energy of regular $H$ atoms when it is formed since the energy can also be stored ...
26
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1answer
930 views

Why are there no green stars?

There are red stars, and orange stars, and yellow stars, and blue stars, and they are all understandable save the fact that there is a 'gap': There are no green stars. Is this because of hydrogen's ...
66
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2answers
11k views

Is it dark inside the Sun?

This might sound like a strange question, but something got me thinking about it recently. The opacity of plasma in stellar interiors can get quite high, making for shorter free-paths for photons. In ...
9
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2answers
1k views

Are there stars with an average density greater than the central density?

Are there likely to be stars for which the average density is greater than the density at the centre? Intuitively, I would say not, as density tends to decrease outwards, but ideally I would ...
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0answers
51 views

What does the Sun “look like” below 100 MHz?

Radio2space.com's The Radio Sun says: At very low frequencies (below 0.1 GHz) and therefore at very long wavelengths (> 3m) the solar disk appears much bigger and brighter in the center, and its ...
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2answers
34 views

How can I estimate the initial luminosity of a SNIa given initial mass of Ni-56?

The initial portion (and peak) of a SNIa's light curve is powered by the $\beta$-decay reaction: $$ ^{56}Ni \rightarrow ^{56}Co + e^+ + \nu_e + \gamma $$ Supposing we know how much Ni-56 is created in ...
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0answers
29 views

Is the magnetic field strength of a star predictable from mass, composition, age and angular momentum alone?

This answer to Which stellar properties can we describe as “first principles” in which we can derive the rest? contains an intriguing bit: That states that composition and mass are the two key ...
11
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2answers
1k views

Which stellar properties can we describe as “first principles” in which we can derive the rest?

Mass, size, temperature, luminosity, chemical composition, the initial abundance of the molecular cloud, distance, brightness, age, and evolutionary cycle can all be used to characterize a star. A ...
3
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1answer
88 views

Are there ways to determine a star's spectral type without the spectrum itself?

Because of the lack of available data online, I am trying to find other ways to determine an exoplanet's host star's spectral type.
-2
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1answer
60 views

What can a star's spectrum tell us? [closed]

Stellar spectra contain both emission and absorption lines. What can these lines from a star's spectrum tell us?
3
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2answers
130 views

How to understand exactly why gravity darkening happens on rotating stars?

Phys.org's TESS delivers new insights into an ultrahot world links to KELT-9 b's Asymmetric TESS Transit Caused by Rapid Stellar Rotation and Spin–Orbit Misalignment (readable in arXiv) The assymetric ...
4
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0answers
43 views

How does SOHO know what's going on in the sun's magnetic feild?

SOHO can image the sun's magnetosphere. I don't have the foggiest idea how they manage it, because at most a satellite can have a single compass, and measure one point in the magnetic field. I thought ...
1
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1answer
70 views

Stellar age determination - code

I'm trying to determine the age of some stars. I have many parameters that characterize these stars: $T_{eff}$ ,log ${g}$ ,$[Fe/H]$, $V$... I've tried to use the isochrones package but so far no ...
22
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3answers
1k views

How does the evolution of a solar system not break the second law of thermodynamics?

Please forgive: I am a layman when it comes to physics and cosmology, and have tried finding an answer to this that I can understand, with no luck. As I understand it, the solar system evolved from a ...
3
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1answer
140 views

Does the luminosity of a star on its main sequence increase or remain approximately constant?

From my understanding, the luminosity of a main sequence star should increase because, in its core, hydrogen is being burnt into helium which means that the number density of hydrogen decreases and ...
10
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1answer
244 views

Is any consensus forming on the solution to the “Lithium Problem”?

The "Lithium Problem" relates to the fact very-low-metallicity stars appear to have a Li/H ratio approximately one third of what would be expected. The ratio should be the same as the prediction from ...
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0answers
35 views

Paper recommendations for career guidance

I'm an undergraduate student in astronomy and I'm one year from graduating, but I feel I still can't choose what career path I want to pursue. To date I've only had two courses of proper astrophysics ...
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0answers
26 views

What is the highest redshift a galaxy with a known stellar mass can be observed?

As part of my research, I would need the following information which it seems I cannot find it in literature. I would like to know what are the highest redshifts at which $10^{7}$, $10^{8}$, and $10^{...
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0answers
34 views

Binary star system effects at the barycenter

I haven't been able to find anything on this so far. Using Alpha Centauri as the study, what events/effects ( if any ) would happen between the two stars? More specifically, between the gravitational ...
3
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2answers
112 views

Are there examples of the effect of shock waves on chemical evolution in of interstellar medium or circumstellar medium?

Are there any examples of calculations or observations of suspected effects of shock waves on chemical evolution in interstellar medium or circumstellar medium?
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1answer
65 views

Simulation and its necessity in astronomical research

I was wondering if mainly everything in Astronomical and Astrophysical was dependent on Simulations then what are the educational requirements are necessary to qualify as the Simulation Expert. What ...
3
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1answer
63 views

How does the field decay of a magnetar power the emission of high-energy electromagnetic radiation?

In Space.com's Dr. Pulsar and Mr. Magnetar? 2 Star Types May Turn into Each Other (and in the linked video) "Tom Prince, a physics professor at the California Institute of Technology and a senior ...
3
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1answer
60 views

What is the difference between emission line and recombination line?

When an electron jumps from higher level to lower level a photon is emitted. This is seen as an emission line. But what exactly is a recombination line? I found them similar. Can you please tell me ...
1
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1answer
256 views

Is the turn-off point of the main sequence the same as the terminal-age main sequence?

The turn-off (TO) point is one tipping point on the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram (HRD) where low-mass stars start to evolve from the main sequence (MS) toward lower temperatures. If I understand it ...
7
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1answer
179 views

Why does the convective core in an intermediate to high mass star shrink?

The image below shows the evolution of the hydrogen mass fraction profile for a 5 solar mass star in the main sequence. I would expect that the size of the convective core stays roughly constant as ...
4
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1answer
48 views

How to model and subtract nebular emission lines from stellar spectrum

I have optical stellar spectra from a star forming region with spatially varying nebular background. I want to subtract the nebular lines from the stellar spectra (which are varying in intensity from ...
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0answers
24 views

Period of pulsation of a star and its relation to free fall and acoustic waves

In this paper, the period $\Pi$ of pulsation for a star can be obtained by means of the virial theorem: $$\Pi = 2\pi\sqrt{\frac{sR^3}{(3\gamma - 4)qGM}}$$ where $s$ and $q$ are constants relating to ...
0
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1answer
76 views

What is the significance of minus sign in the expression of apparent magnitude?

The apparent magnitude of a distant object in the sky is measured as m=(-)2.5 log (I/I0) Where I is the intensity of the object whose apparent magnitude is to be measured and I0 is the reference ...
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0answers
35 views

Relation between oscillator strengths $\log{gf}$ and the Einstein $A$-coefficient, rotational quantum number,

I'm analyzing the spectra of M dwarfs. Some authors characterize the lines with the oscillator strengths $\log{gf}$ while others follow different paths with the Einstein $A$-coefficient. I would like ...
0
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0answers
46 views

Theoretical values of radius and mass of O9.5 II star

Where to find please theoretical values of radius and mass of O9.5 II star? I mean something like in this article. However, there are only O I, O III and O V stars in this article.
20
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3answers
6k views

Can a magnetic field of an object be stronger than its gravity?

Can a planet, star or otherwise have a magnetic field that is stronger or have more range than its gravity?
9
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3answers
4k views

Why doesn't the fusion process of the sun speed up?

Am I correct in saying that the fusion process of the sun is constant, i.e. X amount of fusion happens per day, more or less? Why does this not speed up, i.e. one fusion event creates energy for two ...
3
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1answer
184 views

Is it possible for stars not to rotate?

I'm just curious about that the existence of non-rotating stars. Is it physically possible for a star not to rotate at all? Does magnetic braking eventually stop the stellar rotation?
4
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0answers
50 views

Strength of core-envelope coupling in stars

For a star with a given Zero-Age Main Sequence (ZAMS) mass, as a function of metallicity how strongly is the star's core coupled to its envelope? I understand that the core-envelope boundary is only (...
5
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1answer
77 views

Activity of M dwarf stars

Why are M dwarf stars the most active (in terms of starspots and faculae) of all stars?
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0answers
62 views

Compute the total stellar mass of galaxy with major influence of Red Giants luminosity

Suppose that all stars in this galaxy were born in a single major-merger burst event about 10 Gyr ago If the luminosity in the B band (absolute magnitude in B-band is equal to -21.22) is dominated by ...
3
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1answer
87 views

What is a “differential chemical abundance”?

Probably this is a extremely basic question, but after a lot of time searching about it without results (in all the sites/publications i've found they only use this term but there is no specific ...
3
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1answer
215 views

Why does the adiabatic exponent decrease at the ionization zones?

The context is the ionization zones in stellar atmospheres or interiors, the Sun, for instance. The adiabatic exponent is the heat capacity ratio: $$\gamma = \frac{c_P}{c_V} = \frac{C_P}{C_V}$$ And,...
3
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4answers
609 views

Why there are less massive stars than low mass stars?

What factor determines the selection of star mass? And how we know that the number of massive stars is less than the number of low mass stars?
3
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1answer
86 views

Why is the cloud around Eta Carinae shaped the way it is?

According to (german) wikipedia, Eta Carinae has a cloud shaped like two cones with the points at the poles of the star as well as a disk around the equator. These matter clouds are mostly or only ...