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Questions tagged [velocity]

Questions regarding the movement of an object at a given speed and direction, often related to the concepts of orbital velocity and escape velocity.

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Can “rogue” supermassive black holes be made this way?

Could two galaxies (one big and one small)intersect at a velocity to allow the smaller black hole to escape but not the galaxy around it?
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What is the fastest a galaxy or other body has been measured to (or can) travel?

Our solar system travels at an average speed of 515,000 mph and our galaxy at 1.3 million mph through space. What is the fastest moving body in space recorded and the fastest can a black hole or ...
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Calculating obital velocity from radial velocity

I'm not really a physicist so I don't know if it's possible to get the real orbital velocity of a star from its radial velocity. I'm working on a paper for school and I want to get the mean velocity ...
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1answer
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How is interstellar gas density mapped from GAIA data?

I found the image below in Space.com's article This 3D Color Map of 1.7 Billion Stars in the Milky Way Is the Best Ever Made. The caption for this image reads: The Gaia spacecraft gathered ...
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A rough analytical expression for the Milky Way's radial mass distribution?

I found the image below in Space.com's article This 3D Color Map of 1.7 Billion Stars in the Milky Way Is the Best Ever Made, although it is not the map mentioned in the title. The caption for this ...
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How do I determine the velocity of Pluto at aphelion and perihelion?

I am a college astronomy student and I have to find the velocity of Pluto at aphelion and perihelion. I have found the distance of perihelion to be $1.96\times10^9$ km. Aphelion has a distance of $3....
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Why most planets don't spin retrograde? [duplicate]

Edit: just found duplicate Since orbital velocity is greater on small orbits, and smaller on large orbits, why don't planets spin retrograde around their own axis? One portion of planet's mass is ...
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Circular velocity in axisymmetrici potential [duplicate]

If a matter distribution is spherically symmetric, the circular velocity is straightforwardly related to the mass via: $v_{circ} = \sqrt{GM/r}$ In an axisymmetric potential, on the other hand hand, ...
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Does Absolute Velocity Exist?

It seems everyone is on the same page about there being no "absolute velocity" due to the fact that everything is relativistic. However, this leaves me confused. This seems to be disconnected with the ...
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1answer
236 views

Question about doppler effect

We know that we can use Doppler effect to determine equatorial velocity of a planet. We send a electromagnetic wave with wavelength $\lambda_0$ to an equatorial edge of planet and we get wavelength $\...
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64 views

If velocity is relative, why mass (inertia) is increasing absolutely? [closed]

Would inertia not grow if we took out the reference frame?
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Which celestial object in the solar system has the fastest tangential velocity at its surface?

Consider all of the naturally-occurring objects in the solar system : in the reference frame of the object's center (ie, ignoring the orbital velocity around the sun or, in the case of satellites, ...
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What does the velocity dispersion of a galaxy mean?

Also, what is the advantage of getting information about the velocity dispersion of a galaxy?
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Why does the neutral hydrogen velocity have this characteristic behavior in the galactic plane?

The recently released map of galactic neutral hydrogen density and velocity is really beautiful. The work has been relased by the HI4PI collaboration (HI = neutral hydrogen, $4\pi$ = complete ...
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Why does Gaia use only calcium NIR lines for stellar radial velocity measurements?

I was reading this overview article about the Gaia spacecraft and I saw the following statement: These spectra provide radial velocity information that are used to study the kinematic and dynamic ...
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1answer
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What (actually) is the “ deprojected half-light radius” of this almost-all-dark-matter Galaxy?

The recent news of the Ultra Diffuse Galaxy (UDG) Dragonfly 44 is an excellent example of what could be termed 'observe different' thinking. The dragonfly telescope is noted not for the size of its ...
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58 views

How to calculate a phase shift in the process of deriving Baade-Wesselinke distance?

The above is the equation used in the Baade-Wesselink method to independently get distances to Cepheid variables (in the process of deriving Period-Luminosity relation). According to the paper New ...
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1answer
125 views

Which software is appropriate to integrate radial velocity with respect to time [closed]

I'm a high school student and currently I'm trying to use Baade-Wesselink method to independently derive period-luminosity relation of Cepheid variables. I noticed that to get the linear radius ...
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Integrating radial velocity with respect to time

I'm a highschool student who is writing a research paper about plotting Period-Luminosity graph of the Cepheid variables by deriving distance through independent method such as trigonometric parallax ...
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1answer
232 views

How was the acceleration calculated for this CME (Coronal Mass Ejection)?

I am looking at data used in a project to get the velocity and acceleration of a CME (Coronal Mass Ejection). I understand how the velocity was calculated, and for the acceleration, I get the v2-v1 ...
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1answer
147 views

Is the radius used in the formula for the escape velocity the average radius of the celestial object or the radius at the starting location?

I learnt that the escape velocity is given by $$v_e = \sqrt{\frac{2GM}{r}}$$ Say I want to launch a rocket from the earth into space and want to calculate the escape velocity $v_e$ (I guess without ...
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1answer
667 views

How do I apply a velocity shift to a wavelength array with uniform logarithmic spacing?

Suppose I have a wavelength array for a spectrum in units of Angstroms. Suppose further that the wavelength has "uniform logarithmic spacing" such that if I just take the difference in Angstroms ...
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1answer
135 views

Question regarding the Milky Way when calculating galactic space velocities for galaxies

I have been calculating galaxy space velocities (where proper motions are known) in order to measure their orbits of the Milky Way using the method proposed in the appendix of http://www.aanda.org/...
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Can we tell how fast bodies are moving away by measuring their frequency?

It's clear the universe is expanding because light from distant bodies, like galaxies, are shifted towards the red side of the spectrum. In other words, the light measured is more red than it should ...
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1answer
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How do I modify redshifts to gain corrected line of sight velocities?

I'm currently trying to collect the data to run an N-body simulation for 11 of the galaxies in the Local Group where proper motions are known, however I don't understand how to get the required line ...
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1answer
682 views

The moon: how to determine its size, speed and distance from earth using a simple telescope?

Assuming I only have a simple telescope, how can I determine the size of the moon, its angular velocity and distance from earth?
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1answer
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How to calculate the heliocentric velocity of an object?

My task is to calculate the heliocentric velocity of an object to correct for wavelength in a spectrum. I have the RA, Dec and observation date, and I know that the NED velocity correction calculator(...
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1answer
127 views

Suns Orbital speed and escape velocity question

This is a homework question and I don't want an answer but just want to understand what its asking for. We are given that a star with a mass of x solar masses in ...
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1answer
60 views

Does the universe prefer a velocity?

As I understand it, the distribution of matter is roughly homogeneous across space -- anywhere I stand in the universe, there will about the same amount of matter in every direction around me. Is the ...
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1answer
873 views

radial velocity fitting of a binary

I have two series of velocities (HJD, $v_{1}$ and $v_{2}$ ), how to fit in detail? There is any formula on the web? $sine$ curve is easy, but I need to consider an eccentric orbit. Suppose we can ...
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1answer
306 views

Are black holes solely responsible for hyper velocity stars?

I read that the stars orbiting around Sagittarius A* (a.k.a the supermassive black hole located at the heart of the Milky Way) move very fast (many times faster than our Sun moves across the galaxy), ...
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204 views

How does one measure velocities of far-off, bright objects

As the title already says, I want to know how one measures velocities of far-off, bright objects, e.g. when the mean parallax drift isn't measurable with current apparatus (this means when there is ...
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2answers
768 views

In theory, is there anywhere in the universe where velocity=0?

Earth is traveling at a certain velocity. Earth orbits the Sun at velocity X. The sun is orbiting the center of our galaxy at velocity Y. The galaxy is orbiting (something?) at velocity Z. On and ...
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What is $v_{GSR}$

In this paper ("The Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment: First Detection of High Velocity Milky Way Bar Stars") they plot and calculate $v_{GSR}$. $GSR$ stands for Galactic Standard ...
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1answer
201 views

What is the optimal escape trajectory from near a black hole?

Consider a space ship that is being drawn closer to a black hole. The crew begins to notice the effects, and discovers that they are nearing the black hole. They then manage to halt their ...
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2answers
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Convert orbital elements to positions and velocities

I've written a quick and dirty n-body simulator, but currently it requires initial positions and velocities. I've been looking for a way to convert Keplerian orbital elements to positions and ...
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1answer
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How do we calculate the escape velocity of galaxies?

How do we calculate the escape velocity of galaxies? Do we have to know the total mass? What is the escape velocity for Milky Way?
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What is the standard reference point for measuring speed?

Speed, as we know, doesn't exist without first having a reference point. We then say that the reference point isn't moving at all, and speed is then measured in relation to the reference point. What ...