Questions tagged [volcanism]

Questions about volcanic processes and observations.

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Why do Venus, Earth, and Mars have tall volcanoes, but the Moon, Mercury, and Io don't?

There are numerous examples of multi-kilometre tall mountains such as Maat mons on Venus, Mauna Kea on Earth, the Tharsis volcanoes on Mars. We don't find similar such examples of volcanic edifices ...
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What is k2, how does it relate to Io's volcanism and how can Juno constrain its value?

This answer to Does Juno's UVS have any chance to spot Europa plumes? links to Juno OPAG REPORT by Scott Bolton, OPAG, September 2020. The slides detail past and future Juno flybys of Jupiter and some ...
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Can planetary rings form as a result of solidifed lava thrown up by volcanoes on the surface of small rocky moons/planets?

I have heard that a moon in our solar system orbiting Saturn possesses geographical features that essentially spit out water and moisture from 'volcanoes' on its surface. The volume of water outputted ...
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3 answers
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Can an object from a natural process escape earth gravitation?

I'm no expert, but I once studied basic from advanced physics and understand gravity action/reaction escape velocity of 11.2 km/s from the earth surface escape velocity changing as the object go far ...
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Crust thick enough to prevent volcanos

Could you have an Earth-like planet with a crust thick enough to prevent volcanos from forming?
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How can lunar pits be distinguished from craters?

ESA's news En route to exploring lunar caves features the following paragraph: The Moon's surface is covered by millions of craters, but it also hosts hundreds of very steep-walled holes known as ...
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5 votes
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When was the last eruption on the Moon?

The lunar mare are basins that filled up with magma over the course of the Moon's history. So there were eruptions on the surface of the Moon at some point in time. When did the last eruption happen ...
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11 votes
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When was the last volcanic eruption on Mars?

There are several volcanoes on Mars, including Olympus Mons, the largest volcano in the solar system, the volcanoes on the Tharsis bulge,... But they are all thought to be inactive now. When did the ...
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Are the Venusian "continents" likely to have existed before the global resurfacing event?

A topographic map of the surface of Venus shows the large highland areas Ishtar Terra, Aphrodite Terra and Lada Terra that have occasionally been described as "continents", plus various ...
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3 votes
1 answer
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Is or might there be lightning on Io?

As far as we know, Jupiter's moon Io has the most volcanic activity of any known celestial body. It has the most volcanoes that are active and they're erupting frequently. On Earth (the third planet ...
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How does Io's atmosphere behave locally near volcanic plumes?

Io's surface air pressure is about $0.3 {\rm mPa}$ but Io's atmosphere is strongly variable, depending on whether it's on the near side or far side of Io (relative to Jupiter) and it collapses at ...
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Why is Io's volcanism chemically so different from Earth's?

Volcanic gases on Earth are mainly water, carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide, but on Io there is a notable absence of water and carbon dioxide in volcanic gases, since sulfur dioxide is the dominant ...
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How much mass do the volcanoes of Io erupt past escape velocity?

While trying to do some calculations to answer this quesion, I got stuck missing a crucial piece of data: I have no clue how much mass the volcanoes of Io manage to throw out of the gravity well of ...
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9 votes
2 answers
737 views

Is Io's orbit or rotation affected by its volcanism?

The rotations of comets and asteroids are affected by outgassing volatilities. Io is very volcanically active. Does this give Io a varying orbit and a slow rotation? Tidal forces should take longer ...
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2 votes
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Volcano activity on moon

Are the dark grey areas on the moon formed from the last lava flows from volcanoes? And that is why there are hardly any craters in those dark grey areas because the lava has covered the old craters?...
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10 votes
2 answers
641 views

Could an impact have resurfaced Venus 300 million years ago?

Venus surface isn't older than about 300 million years. The only explanation I've come across is that some kind of global volcanism resurfaced the planet. But couldn't it have been an impact event? A ...
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Could martian meteorites come from Olympus Mons?

Could Olympus Mons have thrown ejecta out of Mars' orbit when it was active? Does it fit with the composition and dating of meteorites with martian origin?
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What mechanism could have formed the Moon's Oceanus Procellarum rift-like gravity anomalies?

According to the NASA JPL web-report, Gravity Gradients Frame Oceanus Procellarum, a rift-like ring structure surrounding the Moon's Oceanus Procellarum has been detected as a gravity anomaly by the ...
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9 votes
1 answer
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What implications does younger volcanism have on the Moon's thermal evolution?

In the paper Evidence for basaltic volcanism on the Moon within the past 100 million years (Braden et al. 2014), suggest that features such as Ina (image below) represent a far more recent age of ...
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14 votes
1 answer
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Are there large underground caverns on Mars?

Scientists talk about the possibility of life underground on Mars, and I assume they are talking about microscopic life that can live in small gaps in the soil or rock. But is there any evidence that ...
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17 votes
2 answers
569 views

How was Io not torn apart by tidal forces during its formation?

Jupiter's moon Io is arguably one of the most volcanically active bodies in the Solar System. The reason, according to NASA's page Scientists to Io: Your Volcanoes Are in the Wrong Place is believed ...
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6 votes
1 answer
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Could a cryo-volcano be the reason behind this colour difference in Iapetus's hemispheres?

Iapetus's hemisphere facing Saturn is dark, whereas the opposite one is bright. Could a cryo-volcano be the reason behind this colour difference in Iapetus's hemispheres?
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What observational constraints are there in detecting the presence of volcanism on exoplanets?

This question is somewhat related to my earlier question How are the compositional components of exoplanet atmospheres differentiated?, but this about a specific surface-atmospheric phenomena - ...
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