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The chemistry of Titan's atmosphere is complex, with reactions occurring between carbon dioxide, oxygen, carbon monoxide, hydroxl, and other compounds. This means that carbon dioxide production and destruction takes place through a variety of reactions (Samuelson et al. 1983), some spurred by ultraviolet light from the Sun (and hence photodissociation). In ...


18

According to this 2007 paper, the current research as of the time of their own research had a huge range in possible concentrations of $\text{MgSO}_4$, magnesium-sulfate, with over four orders magnitude (approximately times $30,\!000$) differences between the extreme ends of the predictions. It conducts its own analyses and near the end of the paper makes ...


8

At the risk of self-plagiarism: (https://physics.stackexchange.com/a/532568/43351 with a bit added). Molecular chemistry in the early universe requires species with bound electrons. Helium hydride is the first molecule to form because neutral helium atoms, formed about 120,000 years after the big bang, could combine with plentiful protons; but it was another ...


8

The detection of complex organic molecules, often abbreviated as COM in astrochemical literature, has only taken up pace in the last couple of decades since substantial advances were only made possible with the advent of new, high-end observational facilities (Green Bank Telescope (GBT), Very Large Array (VLA), Atacama Large Millimeter/Sub-Millimeter Array (...


4

The most popular hypothesis for explaining the various zigzagged lines (lineae) that cover Europa’s surface is that they are caused by cracks appearing in the ice shell because of tidal deformations, and that these cracks are then filled by water oozing out from the interior. The dark, reddish color of these lineae is thought to be due to magnesium sulfate, ...


4

Since water on all planets is in contact with impurities, I would think that the default for water is salty, and a small percentage on Earth (2.5%) gets desalinated by going through the evaporation/condensation cycle. Since no similar cycle is operating on Europa, I imagine its ocean is salty.


3

The kinds of molecules / atoms and the density of those molecules / atoms as a function of altitude in the Earth's upper atmosphere depends very much on the time of day and the activity of the Sun. Time of day: The Earth's upper atmosphere has a marked diurnal bulge. The density variation at a constant altitude can vary by an order of magnitude (a factor of ...


3

Observations by many spacecraft that have visited Venus over the last 40 years appear to confirm the presence of lightning storms in the Venus atmosphere. Recent observations by Venus Express indicate that lightning frequency and power is similar to that on Earth. While storms are occurring, energy deposition by lightning into Venus atmospheric constituents ...


2

Only two meteorites have been found on Earth that are composed of andesite. They were found at the Graves Nunataks ice shield in Antarctica during a US Antarctic search for meteorites in 2006/07. The meteorites are labelled GRA 06128 and GRA 06129. Geologically, the samples are unusual because they are rare samples of felsic crustal material and they are ...


2

It is indeed a much more interesting cocktail of chemicals. Before plunging into Saturn, Cassini collected some invaluable data about composition of its atmosphere and how the complex ring system works. Cassini experienced some "heavy ring rains" in Saturn's innermost D ring, which turns out to be dust grains. The probe tried to use the Ion and ...


1

Atoms are small. It's been observed that there are more molecules of water in a teaspoon, than there are teaspoons of water in all the oceans of Earth. In fact, atoms are so small that even at the very low density of interplanetary space the number of atoms never reaches such low levels that they could be counted. Wikipedia says that the interplanetary ...


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