# Questions tagged [atmosphere]

Questions regarding a layer of gasses surrounding a celestial object.

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1answer
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### Could Eris have a permanent atmosphere?

In Wikipedia they write that Eris has an atmosphere when around perihelion (close to the Sun) which collapses when Eris moves away from the Sun. So it behaves similar to a comet's tail. However, they ...
1answer
87 views

### If Jupiter would stop rotating, would its atmosphere become homogeneous and single coloured?

Looking at pictures of Jupiter, there are many different colours and patterns. I imagine that the rotation has much to do with this, since there are horizontal "bands" across the planet along the ...
2answers
87 views

### Why is blue light extincted more strongly than red?

We know that blue light suffers extinction more strongly than red (examples include ISM, atmosphere etc.), but why? Is it a property of the shorter wavelength itself? Can someone provide a conceptual ...
0answers
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### X-rays, Solar wind and Sun's corona

I was reading that Solar corona emits the solar wind however also X-rays. What is the difference during the creation of these effects and impacts on our atmosphere? Thank you!
0answers
31 views

### Is the atmosphere of neutron star solid, liquid or gaseous state? [duplicate]

Neutron star has a thin layer of atmosphere consist mostly of hydrogen and helium and is about less than a metre thick on average, but what wasn't stated in many articles I read is the state of matter ...
2answers
43 views

### What is the horizontal distance needed to observe an object just as badly as if it where in space at the zenith?

When I see an object in space (let's say the ISS) above my head, my line of sight traverses ~$100\; km$ of atmosphere. The vast majority of the extinction, absorption and turbulence happens closer to ...
1answer
64 views

### How does one find the electric conductivy of a planet's atmosphere?

I am working on an undergraduate project in which we study shaped structures in the atmosphere of the gas giants. We are investigating whether the magnetic field is the source of the instability ...
3answers
154 views

### Could a Jovian or Saturnian moon keep its atmosphere if the system was within the habitable zone?

Currently the atmosphere of Titan is 1.5x thicker than Earth's atmosphere, but it's also much much colder. It's been said that an astronomical body can keep it's atmosphere if the escape velocity is ...
1answer
147 views

### Why does Titan have an atmosphere while similar moons such as the Galilean moons don't?

The Galilean moons of Jupiter are similar in size to Titan and are also protected by their parent planet's magnetic field. How come only Titan is able to maintain an atmosphere?
1answer
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### When and where are we exposed to most cosmic radiation?

I understand the mechanical dynamics of being faced away from the Sun at night, having a lower altitude, not being in the weak points at the poles in the atmosphere, being in a valley and others ...
2answers
85 views

### What if the atmosphere of Titan were like the one on Venus?

The current mean temperature in Titan is −180 ºC (93 K), the same as in Saturn. But I was wondering what would be the case if the atmosphere of Titan would be like the Venus atmosphere, whose ...
0answers
54 views

### What would happen to the atmosphere of a rogue jovian planet?

Let's say we have a gas giant composed primarily of hydrogen and hydrogen-rich molecules that is ejected from its star system. As this planet embarks on its potentially infinite journey out into the ...
1answer
89 views

### Why are cirrus clouds more common on Mars?

Mars water ice clouds are often associated with regional- to-global circulation and saturation conditions, as opposed to local convective overturning, and so typically exhibit cirrus rather than ...
0answers
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### Underground cave in Mars' Armstrong limit [duplicate]

Can a cave, fissure, volcano vent etc. exist on Mars with in the Armstrong limit and support plant life if light and soil was provided? I am not asking how deep is the Armstrong limit of Mars rather ...
2answers
166 views

### A neutron star without a flat surface and an atmosphere?

In the Kurzgesagt video Atoms As Big As Mountains — Neutron Stars Explained they state that neutron stars have an atmosphere that reaches about 10 centimeters above the surface. How is this possible?...
1answer
255 views

### Is the moon inside earth’s atmosphere? If so, what are the consequences?

Recently, a paper was published claiming that the Earth’s atmosphere extends far beyond the Moon. This has been reported on by a number of news sources and websites, including the ESA, Business ...
1answer
379 views

### Could Mars have oil?

What events could have to happen to Mars (which is thought to once look like Earth) that may have depleted the atmosphere and erase all proof of life ever existing at least on the surface? I know an ...
2answers
221 views

### What was the first astronomical measurement which demonstrated that “the Earth is surrounded by vacuum”?

The question Who was the first to realize that the Earth is surrounded by vacuum? was closed because some users felt it was answered by answers to a different question in an different SE site: Who was ...
5answers
775 views

### Vacuum of space [closed]

Firstly I’m genuinely interesting in a working explanation for this question. It is for this reason that I am editing the question to fine tune the question. In essense the question has remained the ...
1answer
141 views

### Does Jupiter lose some atmosphere at all?

I've hear of something like this: "All planets lose their atmospheres eventually and they become a barren rock if given enough time." There are three types of atmospheric loss ways: Jeans Escape: ...
1answer
222 views

### What causes Titan a moon to have a denser atmosphere than that of a Mars?

I'm wondering about Mars and Titan. If Mars is larger than Titan how come it lost most of its atmosphere? Mars also has a magnetic field while Titan doesn't. Yet Titans atmospheric pressure on the ...
2answers
83 views

### Why is it that night has a almost a bluish tint to it instead of red?

From my understanding/been told, the color red has the ability to travel the farthest in our atmosphere, being the reason why we have red sunsets and such. But with this in mind, why is it that at ...
1answer
123 views

### what determines the density of atmospheres

What factors determine the atmospheric density on various planets and moons? Some larger bodies have less dense atmospheres, while some smaller ones have a more dense atmosphere.
1answer
76 views

### What are the characteristics of solid carbon dioxide on the Martian poles?

When carbon dioxide forms on Mars is it like ice or snow? How dense is newly formed solid carbon dioxide? Would more carbon dioxide form inside a pit vs a flat plain? How thick or deep does solid ...
2answers
221 views

### Adiabatic versus convection

I am reading about the interior temperature structure of Jupiter. It says in various texts that there are regions in Jupiter's atmosphere which are well-approximated by a dry adiabatic lapse rate. ...
2answers
171 views

### Is Titan Better or Mars? [closed]

Isn't Titan better to colonize than Mars? It has a thick atmosphere which is made up of nitrogen like our planet's. It doesn't have a magnetic field, but it does get a type of protection from Saturn. ...
1answer
713 views

### How does gravity affect pressure under water?

How different would being under water in Europa differ from being under water on Earth? Would it be possible to dive deeper on Europa with a submarine than on Earth and by how much?
1answer
224 views

### What is the underwater temperature of Europa?

If Europa has an oxygen atmosphere with a water mantle, is it possible that there could be life under the crust of Europa ice on the ocean where it is warmer? What could be the temperature under the ...
1answer
69 views

### Solution for counting atmospheric layers of planets according to relational data [closed]

This math states, that by multiplying the gravitational pull (we assume square of density of the planet), by its inclination (being how high and out it goes) and subtracting that loop from the ...
1answer
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### Mars vs Venus: the retention of atmospheres in relationship to Earth

Correct me if I'm wrong, but the factors than enable a planet to retain or lose an atmosphere seem to be: 1. Magnetic Field, 2. Solar Winds, 3.Weight of Gases, 4. Planetary Temperatures. 5. Distance ...
3answers
707 views

### Why do stars twinkle but planets don't [duplicate]

Many people say that stars twinkle because of Earth's atmosphere. However, the atmosphere is still there when we look at planets and don't see they twinkling. Is there a clear scientific consensual ...
1answer
48 views

### How thick or deep does solid carbon dioxide accumulate on Mars?

On Mars is there an area in which all the $CO_2$ evaporates exposing dirt near the pole? How deep can solid $CO_2$ accumulate during winter in that area during the Martian Winter? https://space....
1answer
84 views

### What is the smallest possible planet with same sea level atmospheric pressure as Earth? [closed]

Suppose there is a planet made of pure tungsten (a quite common and heavy element), with perfect spherical shape. Which should be its radius so that the air pressure and ground/sea level is the same ...
1answer
29 views

### What are the real conditions for the creation of an atmosphere/loss of an existing atmosphere?

Overview: Taking a planet Ganymede for example (moon, technically I suppose). Ganymede is huge (well, in contrast to other bodies) and I've noticed a pattern between larger bodies and atmospheres. ...
3answers
277 views

### Could the Moon sit on the Earth?

Let say that the Earth's Moon was knocked out of orbit and landed on the Earth with some damage but not world ending. Would Earth's atmosphere envelop to include the Moon? Would the moon sink into the ...
1answer
121 views

### Why does the adiabatic exponent decrease at the ionization zones?

The context is the ionization zones in stellar atmospheres or interiors, the Sun, for instance. The adiabatic exponent is the heat capacity ratio: $$\gamma = \frac{c_P}{c_V} = \frac{C_P}{C_V}$$ And,...
1answer
254 views

### Is it possible to see Saturn from Titan's surface, day and night?

Titan is the only moon in our solar system with a thick atmosphere, similar to what our Earth's atmosphere was before life "appeared". It also orbits Saturn close enough to actually see it beautifully ...
1answer
148 views

### Looking at ourselves with a powerful telescope?

Could a small curved mirror and/or lens in Earth's orbit be aimed at a different hemisphere from where you are be be viewed with a powerful telescope to see the ground through the mirror? Would a more ...
1answer
145 views

### How deep in Mars would a person not need insulation and pressure? [duplicate]

How deep in Mars' surface would one have to go to both not need a pressurized suit and be warm enough to just wear clothes? in other words is there a dept Goldilocks where you would only need an ...
1answer
134 views

### Does Pluto's atmosphere collapse?

There were theories that Pluto's atmosphere collapses when it gets too far from the sun. Then I've read papers that says that it doesn't. But NASA says that the surface pressure went down recently (...
5answers
11k views

### Why is moon light not the same color as sunlight?

The light from the moon is light being reflected from the sun. The sun, in space, is white. But on Earth, when the light is filtered through an atmosphere, the light appears yellow. So then, why is ...
2answers
147 views

### Say we were to bring Titan to Earth's orbit. How much would its atmospheric pressure change?

I've heard one of the reason why Titan has such a thick atmosphere is because of its really low temperature. So say that were were to magically bring Titan to the Same orbit as Earth, and the moon ...
2answers
91 views

### Can a planet's gravity rip out its moon's atmosphere?

We all know that solar flares can rip a planet's atmosphere if the magnetic field is weak.Solar flares travel at tremendous speed so when they hit the gas molecules of a atmosphere the molecules are ...
1answer
76 views

### Where will the atmosphere of our Earth go if our sun blows it away completely?

What will happen?Will our atmosphere head to the next gravity dominant body?Will our moon hold a part of our atmosphere or is too weak to hold it?Where all those gases are supposed to go?
0answers
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### Is thermal disintegration of meteorites variable with lattitude?

If meteorites and bolides are aligned to the solar system, then do they have twice as much atmosphere to go through at high latitudes? Wouldn't we expect a higher percentage of metal meteorites ...
1answer
114 views

### Helium discovered on an exo planet

Why is there so much excitement over helium having been discovered on an exoplanet? Isn't it oxygen that we should be looking for, since this is what is needed for life? What do we need helium for?
1answer
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### Scattered Intensity of Light vs Angles of Incidence and Emission

So I just derived an expression for the scattered intensity of light from an atmosphere with ideal isotopic scattering: $I/F=\frac{cos(i)}{4(cos(e)+cos(i))}$, where $I$ is intensity, $F$ is flux, $i$ ...
1answer
221 views

### Is there a comfortable part of Venus's upper atmosphere?

I know the surface of Venus is very hot, but that it gets cooler the higher you go in the atmosphere. I have heard that there is a section in the atmosphere of Venus that might be somewhat habitable ...
1answer
153 views

### What would the pressure and temperature of gas be, right above Jupiter's gas/liquid boundary?

Older pages like this "Exploration of the Solar System" course page describe the transition as being a few hundred kilometers down. More recent findings seem to put the boundary deeper. See The ...
1answer
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### What does “O I” mean in the context of detected molecules?

I've recently been analysing the Exoplanet Database, and have been looking at the 'molecules' field (molecules detected on the planet or in its atmosphere). They all make sense apart from "O I". It's ...