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The spectral type of a star is determined by looking at its spectrum. Sometimes authors will use other, approximate, relationships between spectral type and colour or mass, or they will look at the spectrum compared with standard templates in different wavelength regions. These are all possible reasons why different sources might suggest slightly different ...


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$\eta$ Cassiopeiae A has an estimated mass of 0.972 M$_\odot$, an estimated temperature of 5973 K, and a B-V color index of ~0.58[1]. In addition to the spectrum of the star, we look at these and other properties when attempting to classify main sequence stars. You can see a table [here] which shows the bulk properties of each spectral type that we can use ...


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I found arXiv:1401.2628 which says Modeling the light curve with the NIGHTFALL program provides clear evidence that the system is a contact or possibly over-contact eclipsing binary. A total current system mass of $39^{+40}_{-22}$ solar mass and a high mass ratio $ q>10$ is inferred for the system. The low-mass companion of ${\rm HR5171 A}$ is very close ...


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Many hot stars are born in multiple star systems because the cores of these stars tend to split (see Jeans instability). With lower mass stars this still can happen. However, there are other ways. For example, in a young star cluster, close encounters with other stars can cause a star to be captured by another one.


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There are only about a dozen circumbinary exoplanetary systems known - the first discovered was Kepler 16b. The statistics of circumbinary planets is a relatively unstudied area. One of the major uncertainties is the inclination distribution of the exoplanets. If they are confined to the orbital plane of the binary system, then transiting circumbinary ...


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