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It is a strangely worded question I agree. I would start with the sun appearing directly overhead at the latitude of the tropic of cancer 23.5 degrees. As you go north, vertical shifts north and the Sun appears to be lower towards the horizon due south. To make the Sun appear to be at 73 Degrees from horizontal you would need to be 17 degrees north of the ...

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For a diagramatic answer, draw a circle around the Earth of 1AU radius, place the Sun on that circle then draw Mars' orbit. The part of Mars' orbit that is outside the 1AU circle is the part where Mars is farther away than the Sun. I expect that the two current answers are equivalent.

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Let us first consider the Earth a fixed point and Mars moving around the Sun on a circular orbit with angular velocity equal to the relative angular velocity ($\omega_\bigoplus - \omega_♂)$ The distance between Mars and the Earth can be described as the square root of $R_E^2+R_M^2-2R_ER_Mcos(\theta)$, and when this is equal to $R_E^2$: \$cos(\theta) = \frac{...

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That was a curiosity that I also had once. The reason for that is that the magnetic pole near earth's geographic north pole is actually the south magnetic pole. You can find a more detailed answer on https://wtamu.edu/~cbaird/sq/2013/11/15/why-does-a-magnetic-compass-point-to-the-geographic-north-pole/ Happy Thanksgiving!

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Can any magnet (or even one much stronger) of the Earth divert the cosmic rays as Earth's? No, because even if the strength of the field may be higher, the size of magnetic field is too small. Although the force that your local fridge magnet exerts may be larger than the one of the Earth, it does so only for a much smaller area. Even if you brought your ...

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