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2

That question made me curious too! The grazing can be quantified with the impact parameter b, easy to understand in this schematic from Winn 2011. When looking at exoplanet.eu diagrams with one axis set as the "Impact Parameter b", some planets show as having b~1.7 and 1.6, however these are from TTV (Transit-timing variation) measurements. I'm ...


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There are online programs to calculate habitable zones. Here is a link to one: https://depts.washington.edu/naivpl/content/hz-calculator[1] But I have to warn you that such calculators suffer from problems. It is rather difficult to calculate the circumstellar habitable zone for a star, especially since the albedo, atmosphere, and other qualities, of planet ...


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Here is a brief explanation of the various techniques that can be used to detect exoplanets. The scatter plot suggests that for a planet to be detected by direct imaging, it has to have (roughly speaking) an orbit as large as Jupiter's, and a mass as great as Jupiter's. So Jupiter looks like the best candidate. As for your second question, the declination of ...


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The discussion will focus on the term rogue planet is an oxymoron, as it's missing the principle defining feature of a planet. a Jupiter-sized body without a sun will be warmer than you would have thought. And they could be even larger, up to being brown dwarfs. moons of such a body can be heated by tidal forces, without regard to whether there's a sun ...


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There's also the possibility that a rogue giant planet may have a moon with a subsurface ocean of liquid water due to tidal heating in an orbit close enough to its parent planet. E.g. if Jupiter was a rogue planet its moon Europa could still harbor life because of tidal heating. Around five percent of Earth-sized ejected planets with Moon-sized natural ...


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In short, if a rogue planet has enough internal heat and retains enough of that internal heat by a thick atmosphere or within a miles-deep ice crust, it could be warm enough for liquid water and thus possibly for Earth-like lifeforms. here is a link to an article on the subject: https://futurism.com/life-could-exist-on-rogue-planets-that-dont-have-stars And ...


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This is extremely unlikely. And if it happens, it's a state of limited duration. To explain "space of measure zero" David Hammen mentions in his comment, broken down for this example: there is exactly ONE state (exactly matching rotation) while there are infinitely many other possible rotation periods: just count all numbers, fractional and ...


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