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From the virial theorem, peculiar velocities resulting from gravitational processes generally have magnitudes of the order of $$ V \sim \left(\frac{GM}{R}\right)^{1/2}, $$ where $G$ is the gravitational constant, and $M$ and $R$ are the mass and radius of the system. Galaxies Galaxies have peculiar velocities of the order of several 100 km per second; small ...

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