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I think there's a minus sign missing in the exponent of the expression for $\Phi(L)$ (see Schechter luminosity function). I will be including it here: $$\Phi(L) = \frac{\Phi^*}{L^*}\left(\frac{L}{L^*}\right)^\alpha \exp\left( -\frac{L}{L^*} \right)$$ The integration is question is: $$L_{tot} = \int_{0}^{\infty} L\Phi(L) \,dL$$ $$L_{tot} = \int_{0}^{\infty} ...


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For better astrophotography experience, here are some stratergies I usually if I were to shoot with a cell phone cam. Capturing images It starts with your smartphone itself, Your smartphone should be able to shoot at least 1080p and should offer manual settings. Make sure that you shoot images at JPEG (Check your compression rate, it should be in minimum, ...


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Andomeda galaxy has two very notable satellite galaxies, M32 and M110. These are both dwarf elliptical galaxies, and are approximately the same distance from us as Andromeda galaxy. There are more satellite galaxies of the Andromeda galaxy, but they are not easily seen There are other background objects, galaxies that are roughly in the same line of sight as ...


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The question sort of makes sense, although with inaccurate historical information. It is based on a premise that since we are located inside the Milky Way, it is hard to figure out the exact form of it. Many years ago during my visit to an observatory in northern Virginia, one of the staff working there told us something related to this question. The ...


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The two values are the peculiar velocity of the local group relative to the Cosmic microwave background The Local Group — the galaxy group that includes our own Milky Way galaxy — appears to be moving at 627±22 km/s [390±14 mps ] in the direction of galactic longitude ℓ = 276°±3°, b = 30°±3° Or the peculiar velocity of the solar system relative to the CMB: ...


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I assume that by "luminous matter" you mean stars, although quite as often astronomers are concerned with the mass of gas — which could then be the total gas mass, the mass of some particular element or molecule, or, more often, the mass of a particular elements in a particular state (e.g. "doubly ionized") — or it could be the mass of ...


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