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The paper (section 5.1) discusses three possibilities in the context of a relativistic fireball model, where some of the kinetic energy in relativistic jets of material emerging from the explosion is converted into gamma rays. The gravitational wave emission is always "prompt" since any surrounding material is transparent to gravitational waves. In ...


8

Long and short GRBs are thought to arise from different types of event, involving different types of star. Therefore the question you should be asking is why are their event rates so similar?! Long duration bursts are thought to be produced in the death throes of rapidly, rotating massive stars - the hypernova model. Short GRBs are thought to be produced ...


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The crusts of neutron stars will contain "super-heavy", neutron-rich nuclei. This is an inevitable consequence of the high density material, the accompanying degenerate electrons (that block $\beta$-decay) and what we know about nuclear physics. However, the only things that contribute to a neutron star's observable spectrum are materials within a few cm ...


3

The discovery paper (Su et al. 2010) mentions that bipolar shells on the order of $0.5\text{ kpc}$ were found on both sides of the nucleus of Centaurus A (Quillen et al. 2006). Centaurus A is a galaxy of contested morphology, likely either elliptical or lenticular - certainly not a spiral. This would seem to be a strong indicator that similar bubbles can ...


1

First, I feel like the article is confusing, so it would be better if you read peer-reviewed articles instead. (If I recall correctly, Kaspi & Beloborodov 2017 per your reference discusses more towards observations. It might be easier to understand if you check theoretical papers instead). How does the field decay of a magnetar power the emission of ...


1

Blazar sequence Let's first look at which kind of sources are studied. Blazars are special type of radio-loud AGN. One of their special properties is that their spectral energy distributions (SED) form the so-called Blazar sequence. They all have a characteristic double peak SED and the position of the peaks mainly depend on their luminosity. The higher the ...


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