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This is the Newtonian model of gravity. It is a very good model, it is used for accurate calculating the motion of objects in the solar system to a very high degree of accuracy. However, for very strong gravitational fields you need to use Einstein's model, which accounts for things like the constant speed of light for all observers. I'm not going to go into ...


3

It is miniscule. General Relativity is not required to understand the dynamics of galaxies. Motions are non-relativistic, a few 100 km/s at most, so the kinetic energy of objects is always much smaller than their rest mass energy. Another way of seeing this is to calculate $GM/Rc^2$, a ratio which tells you the relative size of errors you will get in ...


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