28

Most of the galaxy's gas is not incorporated into stars and remains as gas and dust. This is not really my area of expertise, but papers such as Evans et al. 2008 and Matthews et al. 2018 seem to suggest that in the Giant Molecular Clouds where most stars in the Milky Way Galaxy form, the star formation efficiency is about 3-6%. So the vast majority of the ...


25

Human color vision is based on three types of "cones" in the eye that respond differently to different wavelengths of light. Thus, not counting overall brightness, the human color space has two degrees of freedom. In contrast, the spectra of stars are very close to a black body, which depends only on effective temperature. As one varies the temperature, the ...


20

I think you've answered your own question. if 1st and 2nd stars generation burned hydrogen to helium and more heavier elements, then should it be like 90% of all universe hydrogen already converted to helium and something else? If yes, then there should not be enough hydrogen to make the Sun. Clearly the Sun does have enough Hydrogen to form and the ...


8

The mass of an average galaxy appears to be totally dominated by dark matter, so your calculation would not give the galaxy mass. Even if all you wanted was the baryonic (non dark matter) mass then what you suggest will be very much a lower limit. For example you can look at this paper by Chabrier (2001), who estimates that gas forms less than half the ...


8

If we don't wait for too long, where we don't know for sure, whether protons or atomic nuclei stay stable forever, there won't be just one single element. The most abundant element in the universe will probably stay hydrogen, since it will stay in the intergalactic medium, and thin out by accelerating cosmic expansion. The second-most abundant element will ...


8

Stars are responsible. HII regions$^\dagger$ can refer to several things, but usually I guess one thinks of the volumes around star-forming regions. The more massive a star is, the faster it burns its fuel, and at a higher temperature, meaning that the peak of their spectra are more toward the high frequencies. The most massive stars of a stellar population ...


7

Hydrogen was not "created at the moment of the big bang". Particles (leptons and quarks) can attain mass via the Higgs field after the epoch of electroweak symmetry breaking, that occurred about a picosecond $(10^{-12}$s) after the big bang. Only after this was it possible to form the building blocks of hydrogen. In fact the formation of stable protons ...


6

The slowest reaction rate in the pp chain determines how quickly hydrogen can "burn" in the core of a sun-like star. That rate-determining step is actually the fusion of two protons to form deuterium via the diproton and a weak interaction decay. The fusion of lithium, whereby it fuses with a proton and then splits into two Helium nuclei is actually part of ...


6

About 70% of the baryonic matter in the universe is hydrogen, with a mean density of about $4\times 10^{-29}$ kg/m$^3$. Most of the stars that have ever been born are still alive, since an average star is only about $0.25 M_{\odot}$ and has a lifetime much longer than the age of the universe (so very little material has actually been recycled). If we ...


6

The idea of removing material from the sun for either fuel or to lengthen its lifespan is called "star lifting". Various hypothetical methods have been suggested, including heating parts of the atmosphere or squeezing it using magnetic fields. My own tentative suggestion is to combine these with chaos control to manipulate turbulence into making coronal mass ...


6

The question is if 1st and 2nd stars generation burned hydrogen to helium and more heavier elements, then should it be like 90% of all universe hydrogen already converted to helium and something else? Only a tiny portion of the primordial hydrogen has been converted to helium or something else. The explanation is fourfold. Most of the universe's primordial ...


5

Different sources give significantly different values for the conditions under which hydrogen shifts from molecular to metallic. See the discussion in the comments associated with this question. Pressures from about 20 to 300 GPa and temperatures very broadly around 10 000 K seem to be the most common. Experiments can only just reach these pressures, at ...


5

Hydrogen and oxygen only react when there is sufficient energy. For instance, the autoignition temperature of hydrogen at 1 atmosphere is 536 °C. This is why you can do that experiment with mixed hydrogen and oxygen in a balloon, that only explodes when you touch the balloon with a lit taper. Space is cold. Molecular clouds have temperatures in the tens of ...


5

Protium is a proton + an electron. Under enormously high pressure, it's energetically favorable for electrons to merge with protons and become neutrons - see here. are stars mostly protons By mass, yes, at least before they get too old. The mass of the universe is more complicated, but anything solid that we think of as matter is made of atoms, ...


4

There are several misconceptions in your question. First, a star does not vacuum everything in its vicinity. Rather it forms from a condensation in a gas cloud, which in turn collapses to a proto-star surrounded by a gas disc, which can contribute further material. Once formed in this way, a star typically does not acquire more gas (exceptions are symbiotic ...


4

Stan has essentially answered this in his comment, which I will attempt to spell out a little more laboriously. The significant majority of our Sun's energy output comes from the proton-proton chain. This was advocated by Eddington back in the 1920's, but at that time your basic concern was a very real and major problem. Objects with like electrical ...


4

Yes, as mentioned elsewhere, it is possibly possible. Dark matter particles may be intrinsically unstable (though having long lifetimes, which are at least significantly longer than Hubble time). Check for more info here: http://arxiv.org/abs/1307.6434


4

The lines that appear in a stars spectrum mainly reflects its temperature not its composition, see here O-type stars start out with the same sort of composition as other stars, that is they are mainly H and He (approximately 75% and 25% by mass) with traces heavier elements.


3

The 21 cm line is from atomic hydrogen which is going to be free, neutral atoms in vacuum, where the electron is bound only to the proton. In water, or any other hydrogen containing molecule, the electron's orbit will be dramatically modified (or even "stolen") by the atom to which it is attached, and so the transition will no longer exist as a narrow line....


3

Metallic hydrogen is an odd substance. When you push hydrogen atoms very close together, their electrons can come free, and move around, instead of being tightly bound to the atomic nuclei. As this form of hydrogen would conduct electricity, it behaves like a metal. At least this is the theory. Nobody has been able to produce enough pressure to actually make ...


3

It's not technically impossible, but it does seem incredibly unlikely that a gas planet would lack a magnetic field. This is because hydrogen (by far the most abundant element) attains metallic properties when put under extreme pressure. And a spinning metal/conductor generates magnetic fields via the dynamo effect. This is why earth has a magnetic field, ...


3

After the Big Bang, matter has formed in many steps. These are calles epoches. Their length grows typically exponentially. A more detailed description can you read here. The Higgs field always existed, but its value were different. In the very early times, around between $10^{-43}$ and $10^{-36}$ seconds (see Grand unification epoch), its value could ...


2

There is no equation, you need a detailed model of the interior physics of very low mass stars. Very roughly, you can say that hydrogen fusion occurs when the central temperature exceeds about $10^{7}\ K$ (the density dependence is secondary) and that from the virial theorem, the central temperature is given approximately by $T \simeq 1.6\times 10^{7} M/R$, ...


2

While an oxygen ball of gas isn't possible, an Oxygen rich atmosphere on a planet, through photosynthesis is possible. Earth for example. A hydrogen rich planet (Jupiter or Saturn) are also possible, as is a methane rich atmosphere (Titan). If two bodies like that were to collide, you probably would see an enormous flame by the oxygen and fuel ...


2

The analogy is false. Neutron stars consist mainly of neutrons, with a small fraction of protons and electrons in equal numbers. The fraction is density dependent, but is in the range 1%-10%.$^{*}$ Neutron stars are so-named because neutrons dominate both by mass and number. A "normal" star consists of about 75% Hydrogen and 23% Helium and 2% heavier ...


1

The GPS system uses frequencies either side of the 1420 MHz frequency of neutral hydrogen. The GPS system works in woods and forests, so my guess is that you should be ok.


1

A "space knife" is a non-starter: You can't cut a plasma with a knife because it behaves like a gas, not like a solid. You can't put anything into the sun or go anywhere near it because it is hot enough to vaporise anything. Any concept that involves "flying over the surface and scooping up hydrogen" is not going to work. Getting close to the sun is hard. ...


1

We do not have, so far, have the technology to gather the Suns resources, besides Solar Panels here on Earth. A Dyson's Sphere is a theorized technology that could be able to harness the Suns energy. I am sure NASA is working on a solution, but at 5600 Deg. Celsius / 10,000 Fahrenheit, not even titanium can withstand a Close Encounter with our closest star, ...


1

There just aren't any other mechanisms to keep the population excited in a Stromgren sphere. In principle collisions can also lead to excitations, but if you do an order of magnitude calculation you'll find that the time between collisions is much longer than the time to receive an ionizing photon. In a laboratory setting you might be able to coerce some ...


1

A proposal for the minimum mass of a gas cloud before collapsing to become a star was made by James Jeans; because of this, it was termed the Jeans mass. It is calculated as $$M=\frac{4 \pi}{3} \rho R^3$$ where $\rho$ is density and $R$ is the radius of the cloud - one half of the Jeans length, which is dependent on the speed of sound and the density of the ...


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