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The Earth has an absolute magnitude of -4 This means that from 1 AU and at zero phase ("full Earth") it would have a magnitude of -4. Of course the only place that satisfies those two requirements is the location of the sun, but that is not the point; The apparent magnitude depends on the distance from Earth, and the phase angle of the Earth. ...


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The absolute magnitude of the Earth is about $H = -3.99$. This means, from $1$ AU away from the Sun and the Earth, the Earth has an apparent magnitude of $-3.99$. Voyager 1 is $152.26$ AU from the Earth, and $151.85$ AU from the Sun. Using the formula for apparent magnitude, ${\displaystyle m=H+5\log _{10}{\left({\frac {d_{BS}d_{BO}}{d_{0}^{2}}}\right)}-2.5\...


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