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The rotation of our Milky Way in general is derived from observations of the kinematics of gas and stars throughout our galaxy. See for instance a recent compilation of Milky Way rotation curve data from which this figure is taken The rotation curve of the Milky Way as derived from gas kinematics (blue), star kinematics (orange) and masers (black).


I figured out the meaning of the GeoJSON data in "mw.json" (D3-Celestial, Olaf Frohn) describing the Milky Way boundary. There are 5 groups (brightness levels, 1 darkest to 5 brightest) of coordinates describing polygons that delineate the Milky Way on the sky dome : 10 polygons for brightness level 1, 113 at level 2, 46 when level 3, 27 with level ...

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