35

There's no simple answer. In the immediate future, different radio telescopes around the world will pick up the slack in various ways; how that happens will depend on the needs of individual observers and collaborations. Unless someone was to build an identical observatory at the same latitude as Arecibo, with the same frequency range, receiver options and ...


29

Tl;dr, From personal experience, it’s not worth it. It’s a lot easier to throw away bad data than to try to calculate when stop. There’s not a lot of ambiguity as to whether it messes up the data. As of right now, it’s not that big a problem either. Sure, some are particularly unlucky, as seen with a Magellanic cloud observation in early 2020. The concern is ...


23

You correctly state that neutrinos do not interact too often. The physical parameter describing that is the effective cross-section. So what you observe in a detector is not the neutrino itself, but secondary particles, e.g. muons. Colloquially put, you may regard anything with high mass (density) in between the neutrino source and your instrument (to detect ...


16

Yes. The estimates are that LSST will produce about 10 million alerts per night (LSST Alert Distribution presentation) which will be at least a factor of 5x greater than the amount coming from ZTF currently. ZTF is an approximately 10% scale model of what the LSST alert stream will look as there is about 5x fewer alerts and the alert packets contain about 50-...


14

What you say is not quite true: the search for exoplanets is clearly intensive, but it is far from the only things astronomers are looking at. Most of the time, in two words, the situation is: resolution & wavelength. Whatever the field (if you are interested in galaxies, interstellar medium, stars and so on) you want more resolution, to resolve smaller ...


14

I'm pretty certain it is the 200inch Hale telescope at Palomar Observatory. There is an image galley of the 200 inch telescope. According to Richard Preston's book First Light: The Search For The Edge Of The Universe, Einstein attended the completion of the telescope truss, yoke and horseshoe bearing at Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Company in ...


13

As you said, the loss of Arecibo will definitely put a dent in the field of radio astronomy. As for what will help take its place - there are a couple options. Green Bank Observatory has been and still is quite a widely-used radio observatory. It helps in many initiatives, not limited to but including Breakthrough Listen. I know there are many people who ...


13

I would be extremely concerned about the ability of such a telescope to make adequately precise measurements, given the motion of the water. The leading radio telescopes have their mirrors and receivers very exactly aligned. For example, Arecibo's Gregorian dome could be aligned with any location on the order of millimeters, while the Green Bank Telescope's ...


12

The big loss is to radar astronomy. Arecibo was one of only two radar telescopes in the world in regular use, and was by far the more powerful: a 300 meter antenna and megawatt transmitter, versus Goldstone's 70-meter antenna and 500-kilowatt transmitter. I'm not aware of any plans for successors: FAST can't be fitted with a transmitter without a complete ...


12

Amateur astronomers regularly broadcast their viewing sessions over the Internet on the LiveSkies network. Pluto is within the viewing capabilities of most of the equipment used to broadcast but it just looks like a dim star that can be seen to move over long periods of time. https://www.liveskies.org/ Scroll down to the View As A Guest Link then click on a ...


11

You may know that a standard Newtonian telescope has two mirrors, they are called the primary and secondary mirror. The E-ELT has five mirrors: The quaternary mirror is simply "mirror number four", counting in the direction the light enters the scope. It's complex because that's where the adaptive optics sits: The quaternary mirror has an ...


10

The Faulkes Telescope project offers educational access to 2-m telescopes in the Canary Islands and Hawaii. Thanks to @PaulPrice for confirming my hazy recollection. I was observing at the Mt Stromlo 74 inch (1.9m) telescope in Canberra (long since incinerated in a bush fire) in the 1990s when there was a lunar eclipse. The observatory is at the top of a ...


9

Mostly general purpose laser pointers are used for pointing things at smaller distances eg. Diagram or Equations in Powerpoint presentations, so the power of such laser pointers is quite limited/restricted to 5mw ( Class 3A or IIIa) or 10mW in some regions. Because of the low power and small aperture of laser pointers if you point them through empty space, ...


9

I contacted Dr. Danielle Adams, Deputy Director for Marketing and Communications at the Lowell Observatory. She was kind enough to reply, and generously provided the following (lightly edited for formatting): I spoke with one of our senior educators about the Clark knobs. The numbers below correspond to the numbers in the image posted in Why does this ...


9

High energy muon neutrinos occasionally interact and produce a muon. Energy and momentum must be conserved in the process and the muon heads off in the same direction as the neutrino. The relativistic muon can then be tracked by a network of detectors which are sensitive to the Cerenkov radiation produced when muons travel faster than the speed of light in ...


8

The ideal shape for the mirror is round. It's the easiest to make. It's the best-behaved while in use. The hex tiles are already harder. The mirror is a revolution surface generated by a conic curve (circle, parabola, hyperbola, ellipse), which needs to be machined with a precision greater than 0.1 microns. That's extremely difficult already with a round ...


8

I'm not an observer, but there are a couple of quantities I know: seeing: is a measure of atmospheric turbulence and airmass. Its units are arcseconds and is the measured size of a point source, typically a star, as it appears in the image. In short: atmospheric turbulences shift slightly the position of the star, so if you observed it for long enought, the ...


8

Amateur telescope and mirror maker here. Not sure if I qualify as a "citable source" but anyway, here it is: All metals will eventually tarnish. It may take a long time, but it will happen. The process is not entirely chemical always. Sometimes it's purely mechanical (abrasion). Other times it's in between. Surface phenomena are complex. Even gold-coated ...


7

Aluminium coating is a relatively recent process - it became available around the 1920s or 1930s. The Hale telescope arrived just in time to take advantage of this new technology. (It requires a reasonably good vacuum to work, which probably explains why it took a while to come along.) Before that - around the mid-1800s - various chemical "silvering" ...


7

Given that the article seems to be referring to NASA's Near Earth Object Program, it appears that there are five subprograms scanning the skies: Catalina Sky Survey (CSS) (four telescopes: 0.50 m, 0.68 m, 1.00 m, 1.50 m) Pan-STARRS (one telescope: 1.80 m) LINEAR (two telescopes: 1.0 m (retired), 3.5 m) Spacewatch (two telescopes: 0.9 m, 1.8 m) NEOWISE (one ...


7

"Unresolved" here means a source of light that appears as a point, not as a disc or a cloud. For example, the planets can all be resolved to discs by even quite moderate telescopes. Galaxies also can be resolved, they don't appear as point sources. However, stars, quasars, and most asteroids cannot be resolved by amateur equipment. In the context of the ...


7

The event was in 1937; the telescope began operating in 1948. If this Getty photo is the same scene from a different angle, then those with Einstein in the lower frame are, from left to right, Nobel laureate physicist and Caltech president Robert Millikan, and Westinghouse engineers Guenther Froebel and Jesse Ormondroyd. In the upper frame, between Froebel (...


7

Near the pinned location, at 24.0893°S 69.9306°W, Bing Maps shows a building like the one in the University of Antofagasta photos, with signs of recent construction. It's probably a matter of time until Google updates their satellite imagery in that region. The Minor Planet Center maintains a list of observatory codes with positional information. ...


7

The E-ELT is being built at Cerro Armazones, about 20 km from Paranal where the ESO VLT is sited. Unsurprisingly, the observatory that is already there is known as the the Cerro Armazones Observatory. This observatory is a collaboration between the German University of Bochum and the Chilean Universidad Catolica del Norte. It was inaugurated on December 2, ...


6

For observing "predictable" transient events (e.g. Gamma Ray burst or gravitational wave events), observers apply (i.e. write a proposal for peer review) for "target of opportunity" (ToO)time in advance. Typically, you might say we expect LIGO to give us 2 reasonably located, strong GW events dutring the next semester and we would like 3 hours of telescope ...


6

The Lick Observatory on Mt. Hamilton in California has for years allowed the general public to view through their telescopes as part of their "Summer Series." Unfortunately, this is canceled this year due to COVID-19. According to the webpage, visitors can view through either the 36" Great Refractor and the 40" Nickel Reflector telescope. ...


5

Probably western red cedar, thuja plicata, especially if the observatory is in North America. Western red cedar is easily obtainable in North America. It has a light, red, wood that is particularly resistant to decay, and ideal for use in exposed positions. The soft red-brown timber has a tight, straight grain and few knots. It is valued for its distinct ...


5

Optical observatories -- or commissions that allocate time on a national or international basis to one or more telescopes -- generally accept proposals twice a year, during a one-month period with a deadline in the middle or end of March or in the middle or end of August (in both cases, these are for observations that will take place starting about six ...


4

This might not be the type of telescopes your are thinking about, but as IACTs (Imaging Atmospheric Cherencov Telescopes) in the end also measure light in (or near) the optical range, their mirrors are of similar build. The important arrays (H.E.S.S., VERITAS and MAGIC) have, at least partially, mirrors made of glass or with a glass surfaces, coated on the ...


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