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6

Just because it's transparent to the human eye, doesn't mean they are the same. They differ in chemistry, physical properties and the dominant processes. One of the main distinctive properties of the layers in the image you show is the temperature, the boundaries are indicated by where the temperature gradient reverses sign. The troposphere is the densest, ...


3

This is usually referred to in astronomy as the "drift scan" technique, and has actually been used with ground-based telescopes since the early 1980s (e.g., McGraw, Angel, & Sargent 1980, Wright & Mackay 1981). Gibson & Hickson (1992) have a summary of work done in the 1980s and early 1990s in the Introduction section of their paper; ...


2

Based on your description of your experiences, my guess is that it’s not that this eclipse was especially bright, but rather that the previous one you saw was unusually dark. My experience (late 1990s to present) has always been that a totally eclipsed moon is easy to see even under bright urban conditions, but this page says that there were some eclipses ...


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