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Gas giant or ice giant? A gas giant planet is predominantly hydrogen and helium. An ice giant, predominantly what astronomers call "ices", such as water, CO2, CH4, NH3 and others. On Earth, those are liquids or gases, but in space, when a solar-system is forming and beyond the frost line, they're usually frozen as ices. As you stated, Gas giants, ...


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I don't have time to write up a full answer with derivation, but you might want to have a look into the standard radiation transport literature (e.g. the book by Mihalas&Mihalas) or the radiation transport in stellar interiors (e.g. Kippenhahn). The ME-approximation is a standard result for grey radiation transport at optical depths >1, when the ...


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The force any planet produces on a 75kg person is given by formula: F = G * M * m / r^2 Hence: body minimum distance (km) Mass (kg) Force (Newton) % earth Earth 6.341,00 6.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000,00 746,488018227 Moon 384.000,00 73.000.000.000.000.000.000.000,00 0,002476552 0,000331760% Sun 150.000.000,00 1.990....


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The planets do not orbit in the same plane as the Earth, they are inclined by a few degrees. This means that as they orbit the sun, they are sometimes above the plane of the Earth's orbit and sometimes below. And it takes one orbital period to go the full cycle from above, to below and back to the start. The reason that they appear further from the ecliptic ...


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It could be anywhere in the Galaxy or even (unlikely) have left the Galaxy. The kinematics of freely orbiting objects in the Galaxy are heated - that is, the velocity dispersion of objects increases with time. For objects of age of 4 billion years we might expect a dispersion of about 10 -15 km/s in each velocity coordinate. That's about 10-15 pc/Myr. So in ...


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