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According to Mashian & Loeb (2016), one possibility is that planet formation may have occurred around carbon-enhanced metal poor (CEMP) stars in the early universe. The paper focuses on CEMP-no stars as the most metal-poor CEMP stars mostly fall into this category. CEMP-no stars are thought to form from material polluted by supernova ejecta from ...


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According to Wiktorowicz & Ingersoll (2006), Neptune is too hot and too dry to form liquid oceans at the present time. This may seem counterintuitive for a planet with a far higher bulk fraction of water than the Earth which is located so far from the Sun, but the water is going to be mixed up with hydrogen, helium and various other materials in the ...


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Being an ice giant, there is no water on the surface of Neptune. Having a surface temperature of $-201$ $^oC$ any water on Neptune will be frozen. Extraterrestrial liquid water is believed to be beneath the ice surfaces of the Jovian moons Europa and Ganymede. A sub surface ocean has been confirmed on the Saturnine moon Enceladus. As to whether fish or any ...


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Our knowledge of planet formation processes comes from theoretical work and is supported by observations. I'm going to give it my take based on that. On the lower mass end of the planet distribution, starting from comets up to Super-Earths/Mini-Neptunes one needs a high number of rock-forming elements in order to build rocky worlds. Without high ...


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