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The current solar constant on the frost line is equal to: $$j_c=\frac{\sigma T_c^4 \cdot 4\pi r_c^2}{4\pi R_c^2}=\frac{\sigma T_c^4 r_c^2}{R_c^2}$$ where $T_c$ is the current effective temperature, $r_c$ is the current radius of Sun and $R_c$ is the current distance of frost line. We write the equation for solar constant on the frost line when the Sun is a ...


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In short: By the time all that migration happened there still was a large gas disc around the Sun. The energy that Jupiter and Saturn lost when migrating inwards or gained when migrating outwards, was exchanged with the disk. When Jupiter and Saturn migrated inwards, some gas in the disk got the energy they lost and migrated outwards. When both planets ...


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First let's try to understand why planets migrate inwards. Planets are formed in a protoplanetary disk; a huge disk of gas and dust that accretes on to a newly forming star at the centre. Gravitational interactions between the planets and the gas in the disk play a very important role in planetary formation and evolution. As planets orbits within the disk, ...


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