10

Straightforwardly no. For a start there are almost no free protons inside a white dwarf. They are all safely locked away in the nuclei of carbon and oxygen nuclei (which are bosonic). There are a few protons near the surface, but not in sufficient numbers to be degenerate. Let us assume though that you were able to build a hydrogen white dwarf that had ...


9

There is no contradiction between special relativity and quantum mechanics. Quantum field theory fully merges special relativity and quantum mechanics to describe relativistic electrons and protons (quantum electrodynamics) and quarks (quantum chromodynamics). The problems lie with merging general relativity and quantum mechanics.


7

Proton degeneracy is not important, because its effect is much smaller -- much like nuclear particles in theory also are dictated by gravity, but the electromagnetic and nuclear forces are dominating, since they are much stronger. Proton degeneracy is weaker than electron degeneracy due to the far greater mass of the proton compared to the electron. The ...


7

Andy Gould proposed a classical derivation of Hawking radiation in a somewhat obscure paper from 1987. The essential argument is that a black hole must have a finite, non-zero entropy (otherwise you could violate the second law of thermodynamics with a black hole). Moreover, the entropy of the black hole must depend only on its area (otherwise you could ...


7

Photons are massless. This doesn't depend on their energy, so doesn't depend on their frequency or wavelength. Massless particles travel at the speed of light. Even if we abandon particles and look at classical electrodynamics, we find that the speed of an electromagnetic wave (in vacuum) has a fixed value. It doesn't depend on wavelength. Gravitational ...


5

In summary "no, why would it?" If the universe continues to expand, then the photon will experience ongoing cosmological redshift, so it's wavelength (as measured by an observer moving with the general "flow" of galaxies in that part of the cosmos, will get longer, its energy lower, and it will, accordingly become more difficult to detect. We can detect ...


5

First off, you're much more likely to see parsecs, light years, or astronomical units than Planck lengths in astrophysics. However, for those who like to work in a system of natural units, the Planck length is the obvious choice for the unit of length. This choice has nothing to do with quantizing spacetime. It instead results from a desire to make ...


4

So, the presenter explains that two observers who are not moving relative to one another will agree on the meaning of "now". However if one observer is moving, then they will no longer agree, and what one considers to be now will be in the past or future of the other. He observes that a sufficiently distant observer, in another galaxy 100 million light ...


3

The Planck length also still has meaning. This source describes it as: The Planck length is the scale at which classical ideas about gravity and space-time cease to be valid, and quantum effects dominate. So we may not be sure what happens on such small length scales, but we can be sure that it is not even approximately described by "classical" space-...


3

Of course unknown "strange Quantum Effects" could do anything, but this letter reports calculations which suggest that at least one of the LIGO gravitational wave events is consistent with black holes but not with gravastars. That doesn't rule out the possibility of gravastars and black holes existing, but it speaks quite strongly against the idea that all ...


2

All of them. If you sit on Earth then (in the many worlds interpretation) each quantum mechanical observation creates multiple universes, and there is a copy of "you" in each one. So if I were to ask, which universe will I be in tomorrow, the answer is "all of them" (except the ones in which I die) If I go into space, float around and come back I will come ...


2

It depends entirely on the circumstances of black hole formation. The remnant may be a stable neutron star, but if it accreted enough matter later on (by fallback in a supernova, or from a binary companion), then it may collapse. This could happen at any time after formation. If the core of the collapsing star forms a proto-neutron star above the TOV limit ...


1

I have it on good authority that: ...nobody with any expertise on the subject has the foggiest idea what dark energy is... This is confirmed in the beginning of Wikipedia's Dark energy which says: In physical cosmology and astronomy, dark energy is an unknown form of energy that affects the universe on the largest scales. and The density of dark energy ...


1

There is quite a nice explanation on this web page. A key passage is this: in curved spacetime there aren't these "best" co-ordinate systems, the inertial ones. So even very reasonable different choices of co-ordinates can give disagreements about particles vs antiparticles, or what's the vacuum. These disagreements don't mean that "everything is ...


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