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tl;dr, It depends. On a lot of things. Mostly on how long you wanna be alive. But this is an area of modern research, and one we are looking for an answer to currently. Like mentioned in one of the comments, GCR (galactic cosmic rays) are a high threat, but as you responded, you don’t want to incorporate these into this thought experiment. While I should ...


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First, I have provided some background on these phenomena at: https://astronomy.stackexchange.com/a/16786/13663 Solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are not the same phenomena. I am aware that radiation from these solar events does not travel directly outward from the direction of the sun but follows magnetic lines of force and may be subject to ...


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There is no great explosion in the formation of a white dwarf. The outer layers of the star are blown off into space, forming a "planetary nebula" and the dense carbon-oxygen core remains. The core is pretty hot (100,000 degrees) Hot enough to radiate X-rays, but not the more energetic gamma rays. The Earth (assuming that it is still in an orbit) ...


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Any ion that captures an electron has the capability of forming a hydrogenic atom where you can have transitions between energy levels with very large principle quantum number. The conditions to make these transitions visible are a low density plasma to avoid collisional (de)excitation. For example Peters et al. (2011) discuss "decametre" ...


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