Fig. 1 and many others on that page seems to be diagrams of various trigonometric relations, used e.g. to convert between coordinates of celestial objects. But I'm not sure about this particular one.
Fig. 21 is a armillary sphere, i.e. a physical model showing the position of objects in the sky. Because this particular model has Earth in its center, it's ...
In Ptolemy's system, the two missing symbols are Venus (♀) and Mars (♂), respectively. The arc in the bottom of the Venus symbol actually belongs to Mercury below (☿).
The two following spheres contain the stars, which were believed to be eternally fixed. The two next are, I believe, also containing stars, namely the zodiac ...
To add to the excellent answer by barrycarter, there are 2 planetarium-like codes, that I know of, that run on a mac and would make excellent tools for viewing certain astronomical objects. The codes are Stellarium and Celestia. Both turn your computer into your own planetarium where you can search and view objects in space.
It would be more accurate to call them surveys than studies. A study looks at an object in detail. A survey counts and categorizes objects.
Rogue planets are enormously difficult to see, and only a few very large ones have actually been observed directly. For the largest rogue planets, it's unclear if they actually are ejected planets as opposed to ...
There is no central authority in science. There is no council that sets the standards. The criteria for a discovery are the same: You publish your findings, and your peers accept your results.
There is the 5 sigma rule in particle physics. Perhaps you were thinking of this. But that is not an official rule, instead it's a convention among particle physics....
There are books that treat the general history of astronomy, such as those mentioned in the previous post.
The History of Astronomy: A Very Short Introduction by Michael Hoskin.
History of Astronomy by George Forbes
Some books focus on discoveries from a certain period of history
The Cosmic Century
by Malcolm S. Longair
details discoveries that were ...
There is the NIST Atomic Spectra Database where you could browse by elements. This the reverse approach, meaning that you have to first query element by element and then see which of the lines you find in the spectrum - that's how we used to do it in our labs during studies:
Then, there is another NIST site where you can enter up to 4 spectral lines in ...
Finally, I managed to find such list (and even more): Meteoritical Bulletin.
You can search for every location where at least one meteorite was found (including Mars and Moon). You can also choose among many other useful options. I found 15 on Mars and 2 on Moon, so I believe there are 17 extraterrestrial meteorites found.
What about Astronomical Algorithms by Jean Meeus. It's a mathematical discussion of the formulae behind astronomical events such as solar eclipses, occultations and transits. I have read it. It is a wonderful book. The only aspect that might not be satisfactory is the modern aspect. It's somewhat old.
The database of the meteoritical society might be what you are looking for. You can do a search by year.
Based on this data, I drew this quick plot of number of recorded meteorites per year
Now there are a couple things to see here. First is that we find as roughly as many meteorites as we did ten or twenty years ago. So these events are not more common ...
You could try The History of Astronomy: A Very Short Introduction by Michael Hoskin. Or, for a more detailed but more expensive textbook, The Cambridge Concise History of Astronomy edited by Michael Hoskin.
If you wanted to focus on one discovery that changed the world, I would suggest "Longitude" by Dava Sobel. It shows how something that could be dry - how navigators discovered what longitude was - is in fact a page-turning detective story. It was also made into a movie.
8 AD was definitely a leap year.
It was believed since Scaliger that the leap year sequence was (45), 42, 39 ... 12, 9 BC, AD 8, 12 ... This was based strictly on sources in literature. Chris Bennett claims that an astronomical papyrus published in 1999 (pOxy 61.4175) which gives lunar ephemeris in late 24 BC and implies that Scaliger was definitely wrong, ...
High School Senior
Your first mission is to concentrate on getting a good set of results from high school. That really means not spending your time chasing astronomy and astrophysics yet.
Yes, this is what your parents and teachers would say, but you know, if you ever want to have the time, resources and maybe the chance to study and/or work in these ...
Assuming your question is a reference request:
I now about one resource that has a very broad range of spectral data, the
NIST Atomic Spectra Database Lines Form
This has worked great for me.
This page lists a couple of different alternatives. For the near IR case you are interested in, several collections are listed here.
What you want is hydrodynamic stellar evolution. The following starts with a brief review of hydrostatic case to give the fundamentals. The last paragraph discusses the hydrodynamic case.
For hydrostatic case, see this, or this. Simplified stellar evolution assumes hydrostatic equilibrium (i.e., time-independent fashion). The system of equations compose of ...
I agree with your supervisor: If your paper is going to a peer-reviewed journal, you should cite peer-reviewed material. I also agree with you that the NASA version is clearer than the original figure, but if you're only going to refer to the image — i.e. not show a reproduction — I'm sure the reader can figure it out.
Alternatively, you could create your ...
For most parts of astronomy and astrophysics the level of mathematics required is not very high, compared to what a mathematician would call mathematics. (You are not going to spend much time on proving theorems, for example). So that is the first reason for telling you not to be discouraged by feeling nervous about maths. Much of the time, you only need to ...
Generally, astrophysics (and astronomy) is math-heavy. That should not discourage you, but rather act as a way of learning math: it is often easier to learn topics that you have a use for and are part of some personal project than just getting lectured about them.
Astrophysics is based on math because it is based on many forms of physics - mechanics, ...
I used Foundations of Astrophysics by Ryden and Peterson in my first college astronomy course, which focused on stars, the ISM, and galaxies. The textbook itself goes far beyond those topics, delving into cosmology, planetary science, and more, and we actually use it for another intro-level course for majors covering those topics. I think it could be used ...
A bit more on the Ptolemaic system.
The five outer circles, from the inside out:
Sphere of Saturn. The spheres are labeled on the inside, so this one corresponds to the Saturn symbol.
Sphere of fixed stars. This is lableled by the star symbols, it's the sphere where all the stars are attached.
From here on out, the number and function of the remaining ...
In googling I stumbled across the following list of Perihelion dates and times back through the beginning of the twentieth century, and forward to then end of the twenty-first.
This seems to agree with the values generated by the US Naval Observatory's Perihelion and Aphelion page, which accepts ...
If you know how to reduce raw spectrum data, you may look at the official archives of big observatories (ESO, MAST, CADC). But a quicker and much easier way could be to use the following portal:
Typing the name of some Wolf Rayet stars will lead you to reduced data and thus spectra.
A book suggestion: The Big Bang by Joseph Silk
The main text is descriptive only, yet deep enough into the topic to be recommended for my third year cosmology course as an undergraduate. The math that supports the concepts is covered in the Appendices and may be the best indication on how much you need to learn and in which areas to support your interests....
With further research I found an Answer in "The Cosmic Century" by Longair (Cambridge).
When Longair says
In 1823, Fraunhofer made further observations of the spectra of the planets and the brightest stars, anticipating by about 40 years the next serious attempts to measure the spectra of the stars (Fraunhofer, 1823)
the article referenced is Kurzer ...