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3

The discussion will focus on the term rogue planet is an oxymoron, as it's missing the principle defining feature of a planet. a Jupiter-sized body without a sun will be warmer than you would have thought. And they could be even larger, up to being brown dwarfs. moons of such a body can be heated by tidal forces, without regard to whether there's a sun ...


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There's also the possibility that a rogue giant planet may have a moon with a subsurface ocean of liquid water due to tidal heating in an orbit close enough to its parent planet. E.g. if Jupiter was a rogue planet its moon Europa could still harbor life because of tidal heating. Around five percent of Earth-sized ejected planets with Moon-sized natural ...


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In short, if a rogue planet has enough internal heat and retains enough of that internal heat by a thick atmosphere or within a miles-deep ice crust, it could be warm enough for liquid water and thus possibly for Earth-like lifeforms. here is a link to an article on the subject: https://futurism.com/life-could-exist-on-rogue-planets-that-dont-have-stars And ...


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According to the wikipedia article on sub-brown dwarfs the lowest mass object that can form from collapse of gas cloud is about 1 Jupiter mass. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sub-brown_dwarf


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The answer to your first question is (now) fairly simple: No, brown dwarfs are not more common than red dwarfs. A crude approximation is that stars (which are indeed mostly red dwarfs) outnumber brown dwarfs 4 or 5 to 1; see, for example, the review article by Chabrier et al. (2014). This is supported by extensive surveys done in the 2000s and 2010s, ...


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This is an important question to ask about the initial mass function of objects in the Galaxy - and the final answer hasn't been cast as it is a matter of research. Yet, observational data (e.g. see the mass functions for various clusters in this talk), and simulations in more or less good agreement with that (e.g. here or here), seem to indicate that this ...


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