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The first image is from a July article by TV meteorologist Brent Watts. Approximating that view in Stellarium: The yellow arc is the ecliptic, the plane of the Earth's orbit around the Sun. It looks curved due to the map projection. If the view is centered on it, the ecliptic looks straight: Unlike the Sun, which appears on the ecliptic at all times, the ...


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Not really. The mass of Mercury and Venus together are just 0.0027 of Jupiter's mass. So the effect is really small. Now, in principle, there are resonances where the regular tug from planets affect the long-term evolution of the orbits of other planets. The exact details get very messy, but in some cases the presence of a planet stabilizes certain orbits - ...


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One of the possibilities for the inner Solar System becoming unstable over the next few billion years is a secular resonance between Mercury and Jupiter that increases the eccentricity of Mercury's orbit, which can result in some interesting consequences. From Batygin & Laughlin (2008): The experiments yielded one evolution in which Mercury falls onto ...


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I feel like this is getting into worldbuilding a little, but a Dyson sphere is problematic. Dyson ring or swarm is more possible. One change, regarding the removal and redistribution of mass of Venus would be a change in Earth's eccentricity cycle, as Venus is one of the key planets that effects Earth's eccentricity, along with Jupiter and Saturn. That ...


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If you want correct values, you have to take into account the effects mentioned in Brandon Rhodes' answer. Nevertheless, here's how to do a quick-and-dirty calculation. The absolute magnitude of a planet is defined as the apparent magnitude if the Sun-planet and planet-observer distances are 1 au, at opposition. Assuming a diffuse disc reflector model, the ...


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