# Tag Info

Accepted

### How much air escapes into space every day, and how long before it makes Earth air pressure too low for humans to breathe?

Most of the Earth's atmosphere is quite close to the surface. The outer layers are very tenuous, and are primarily composed of hydrogen and helium. The lower regions of the atmosphere are well mixed, ...
• 16.1k
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### How could Mars' atmosphere be shed by solar winds, when Venus has a thick atmosphere despite no magnetic field?

I am not certain that the main cause of Mars losing most of its atmosphere was the solar winds. Long before the solar wind was discovered scientists calculated other factors which affect how long a ...
• 7,949
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### How much water on the earth is made from hydrogen comes with solar wind?

Here is a way of getting a rough upper bound: the density $\rho$ of the solar wind is about 4 atoms per cm$^3$ (that we can assume are hydrogen), and it travels at $v=400-500$ km/s. That means that ...
• 15.2k
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### What actually are line-driven winds?

The word "line" refers to a spectral line, i.e. an emission or absorption feature in a spectrum. In this case it's absorption. Line-driven vs. continuum-driven winds Stellar winds are driven ...
• 39.1k
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### How much mass does the Sun lose as light, neutrinos, and solar wind?

The solar neutrino luminosity is about 2.3% of its electromagnetic luminosity (i.e. light). So the extra mass lost in the form of neutrino energy is 2.3% of your original calculation. The average ...
• 158k

### How could Mars' atmosphere be shed by solar winds, when Venus has a thick atmosphere despite no magnetic field?

One of the main loss mechanisms of atmospheres escape is thermal escape (Jeans escape) into space. The average thermal velocity at a given temperature $T$ for a molecule of mass $m$ is  v_{th} = \...
• 20.5k

### What is the composition of the Solar Wind?

We have very good data on the heavy metals in the solar wind from the Charge, Element, Isotope Analysis System (CELIAS) on SOHO: Some of these elements were previously known; others were observed for ...
• 37.3k
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### Why does the Solar Wind consist of charged particles?

You are right about the kinetic energy (ie the fast motion) of the particles being the reason, but wrong when you say They must be of almost the same energy if so there will be no relative kinetic ...
• 10.4k
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• 1,044

### Direction of Earth’s poles relative to the Sun’s movement around the Galaxy

There is no difference in the number of cosmic particles. You seem to imagine that there are static clouds of gas in the universe that the sun is moving through. This is not the case. The gas in the ...
• 127k

### Solar Wind and Asteroid orbital behavior

Sort of, via radiation pressure and heating. The Sun emits photons, which carry with them energy and momentum. Any flux of photons applies pressure to an object it hits; this is the basic principle ...
• 37.3k
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### Will the Sun's solar wind push a permanent magnet out of our solar system?

No. The magnetic field has two poles, the force on the two pole of the magnet is equal and opposite. This is why a compass needle will align in the North South direction, but is not pulled towards the ...
• 127k

### The sun's SOLAR WIND VS MAGNETAR

First, magnetars are absolutely bizarre objects with magnetic fields so strong the rotation of the object can result in pair production in a vacuum. So perhaps the two most important things that the ...
• 1,031

### Does the magnetic field of earth restore?

Remember that a magnetic field is just that: a field . There's no mass there. Its shape depends on the electromagnetic properties of Earth -- primarily the behavior of the outer core. When there's ...
• 3,873
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### Do Electric Charges in the Van Allen Radiation belt move in Opposite Directions?

Yes and no. The question @JohnRennie links to in his comment Analogy between magnetic bottle and Van Allen's radiation belt contains a lot of relevant information, but packaged as an answer to this ...
• 10.4k