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TL;DR: In a couple of weeks it might be possible to say precisely (within a second, perhaps a fraction of a second) when the summer solstice did occur. But until then, sub-minute estimates should be treated as fraudulent. The reason you are seeing different times for when the summer solstice will occur is that different websites use different models of the ...


12

This is because the summer and winter solstices (approx. June 21st and December 21st) do not correspond to the aphelion and perihelion (approx. July 5th and January 4th). Therefore, the average distance from the Sun is longer in the period from the Summer Solstice to Winter Solstice than vice versa, so the Earth is moving slower (on average) and it takes ...


9

It is intrinsically hard to measure the exact time of solstice as, unlike the equinox, it occurs when the sun's declination is changing slowly. So, determining the exact time of solstice depends on models of nutation, etc. timeanddate.com has a user-created countdown time that uses 21:43:40 UTC for the exact time of solstice. I'm a little sceptical, as they ...


8

First, don't think that equinox is when the day and night are the same. It is the moment, when the sun's declination is zero, or when the sun is directly over the equator. Let me explain ... Earth is always rotating around the Sun, so declination of the Sun is always changing (except at the solstices when it stops for a minute and goes in the other way). As @...


5

Two further points to make are that: (1) because of the way we define sunrise and sunset as being when the entire Sun is below the horizon not just the centre of the Sun. (2) When the Sun is close to the horizon the Sun’s ray are refracted (bent) by the Earth’s atmosphere so that the Sun appears to be slightly higher in the sky that it would be if the ...


5

The easiest graph to consider is the graph of day-length. If the day-length varies from 8 to 16 hours, there can only be two equinoxes: At the time of equinox, the day length changes at the fastest rate, by a few minutes in temperate regions, compared to the solstices, which change by a few seconds every day. So, the equinox doesn't exist perfectly, the ...


4

There is no connection between the date of the solstice and the perihelion. It is merely a minor coincidence that perihelion occurs close to the solstice. The relationship isn't fixed. Precession in the Earth's orbit (caused by gravitational perturbations of Jupiter and other planets) will change the relative time of perihelion and solstice over a period ...


4

The two coincided about 800 years ago. The December solstice and perihelion date coincided in 1246, 773 years ago. There are many different concepts of what qualifies as a "year". Three of them are the sidereal, tropical, and anomalistic years. The sidereal year measures how long it takes for the Earth to complete one orbit about the Sun with respect to the ...


4

Sounds like Julian Calendar slippage. The Gregorian Calendar, the one we use now, was created to fix a problem with the Julian Calendar: The fact that the Solar Year wasn't exactly 365.25 days. As a result, compared to the calendar year, the date of the Vernal Equinox (and more importantly at the time, Easter) was slipping forward. To remedy this, ten ...


3

The diagram below illustrates the reason, which is that the earth moves at different speeds during it revolution around the sun and the distribution of those speeds is not equal because the solstices/equinoxes are not located at symmetrical points on the ellipse vis-a-vis the speed symmetries, which are centered on the aphelion and perihelion. Diagram by ...


1

The earth is smoothly and constantly moving around the sun. At the moment of the equinox, a line from the center of the sun to the center of the earth passes through the equator. That only lasts an instant. Before that instant, the line is on one side of the tilted equator, and after that, it's on the other side. The day labeled "the equinox" is ...


1

The azimuth of the sunrise (or sunset, or any object) is a function of the Sun's declination and observer's latitude. It can be calculated from the following forumla: $$\cos(\theta_R)=-\frac{\sin(declination)}{\cos(latitude)}$$ where $\theta_R$ is measured from due south to the location where the object rises or sets. For example, at 55 degrees north ...


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