42

Models for the future behaviour of the Sun do vary, mainly as a result of uncertainty of mass loss during the red giant (H shell burning) and asymptotic red giant (H+He shell burning) phases. A highly cited paper by Schroeder & Smith 2008 claims that the Sun will reach its maximum size of about $256 R_{\odot}$ (1.18 au) at the very tip of the red giant ...


17

Arcturus is a RGB star, probably fairly similar how the sun will look when it becomes a red giant. Arcturus is slightly more massive than the sun ($m_{\rm Arc}=1.08 m_{\odot}$), but the main difference is the lower metallicity of $[Fe/H]\approx-0.5$. This low metallicity reduces the opacity in the stellar radiative zone (which fills a significant portion of ...


10

It's all to do with the relationships between mass, spectral-type and luminosity and the initial mass function of stars. I think your explanation of points 1 and 2 are completely correct. O and B stars are rarely born and short-lived; so even though they have enormous luminosities relatively few make it into a list of stars ordered by apparent brightness. A ...


7

This is a well-studied problem. The effect of rotation on the structure of a low-ish mass star (like the Sun) is summarised by Eggenberger (2013). Such stars are never observed to rotate so fast that the rotation plays any significant role in their hydrostatic equilibrium, however rotation does play a role by causing additional mixing in the star. This is ...


7

Your question may ulitmately be about the physiology of the eye, which is off-topic here. The spectrum of the Sun seen low on the horizon is quite different to the spectrum of an M-type red dwarf. The reason that a red dwarf is red, is not just that it is cool, but that there are great chunks of the spectrum that are absorbed by molecules in the photosphere ...


6

Yes, you can see one tonight. Arctaurus is a red giant star with a mass of about 1.1 times the solar mass, so rather similar to the sun. It currently has a spectral type of K0 III. It is ascending the red giant branch, so it's luminosity and spectrum are not stable in the longer term. The sun will pass through this phase, and following a hydrogen flash ...


3

I'd say there are fewer M stars on list because they are least bright. they may outnumber other star types but only nearest ones would make list of brightest stars. Type O stars are rare hence the small number. This info is available from a Wikipedia page on 'stellar classifications' and refer mostly to the mail sequence stars on the Hertzsprung–Russell ...


3

The spectrum of a star is almost certainly a unique fingerprint. Even though stars are born in clusters, formed from the reasonably chemically homogeneous environment of a giant molecular cloud, there are likely to be small differences in their local environment. Furthermore their formation environments, and the stars themselves at later times, can be ...


2

A very low mass M-dwarf (what you have there is something like an M5-M6 dwarf) will remain a highly magnetically active star for several billion years. As such, the spectrum of light from such an object has a much higher proportion, by several orders of magnitude, of UV and X-ray emission than the Sun. Therefore, if your planet is close enough to its star ...


2

Even the optical spectrum alone has lots of goodies. In addition to chemical abundance, size, and other outer properties from emission and absorption lines you can get the rotational rate from a narrow line's doppler profile, and very careful spectroscopy information on vibrational modes of the star through spectral asteroseismology. Also most stars are ...


2

Both $B-V$ and $U-B$ are a reflection of how hot the surface of a star is. To first order (inhomogeneous surface temperatures do exist) this has a single value for a given stellar photosphere and so there ought to be a direct relationship between $B-V$ and $U-B$. Here it is, shown below as a graph appropriate for main sequence stars with a composition ...


2

TiO is used as a sunscreen, it has high absorption and emittance rates and a high radiation potential. SiO2 is used for fiber optic cables and probably deflects and transmits photons a lot more, and it is very chemically inert, that's why the desert is made of quartz, it's all that is left after the rest has been weathered, it's orbitals are very stable and ...


2

Stars born together in clusters have more-or-less the same age. As a rule of thumb, any spread in age, measured in millions of years, is smaller than the extent of the cluster in parsecs. For most stellar clusters, smaller than a few pc, the only chance of measuring age differences occurs in the first 10 million years of life. There is no evidence for age ...


2

As far as I can tell, the J-type was introduced by Bouigue (1954), and have subsequently often called "J-type stars" or "J-stars", e.g. Abia & Isern (2000). This likely led to the J-type designation being put as "in use", though the spectral types themselves appear to always have been used in combination with "C".


1

There are several online sources of spectra (eg SDSS), but they usually just provide a FITS file with data, or a plot vs wavelength without any annotation. Of course, you could use the NIST atomic spectra database to identify lines, but that quickly becomes tedious. There are many figures containing spectra for various classes of stars in the book by Gray ...


1

You can convert from B-V to U-B by assuming spectral energy distribution (SED). For example, if you assume blackbody SED (BBSED). The BBSED is determined by only the temperature (+ scaling constant which is irrelevant here). Therefore, there is a mapping from B-V to the certain temperature. Once you get the temperature, you can find U-B by applying the ...


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