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One can make a theoretical upper bound by considering the most short-lived star possible $\tau_{short}$, and a large supply of initial hydrogen $M_H$. Then one could calculate the fraction hydrogen that is recycled $r$ after the star ends (with a supernova), and get a total number of generations as $ \log (M_{star}/M_H)/\log(r)$. If one uses the solar-mass $...


Many hot stars are born in multiple star systems because the cores of these stars tend to split (see Jeans instability). With lower mass stars this still can happen. However, there are other ways. For example, in a young star cluster, close encounters with other stars can cause a star to be captured by another one.

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