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The current paradigm for understanding the formation of the solar system (including the planets) is nebular theory, which is thought to be applicable to the rest of the Universe. Question: Now that we've discovered many extra-solar planets, are there theories differing from the accretion disk theory for the formation of planetary stellar systems? Not in ...


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We want it so that $1 \text{ year at the speed of x% of c} = \dfrac{10^{10}}{80} \text{ stationary years}$. The Lorentz factor (in terms of c) is $\gamma=\dfrac{1}{\sqrt{1-v^2}}$. Solving for $v$ with $\gamma = \dfrac{10^{10}}{80},$ we get $v=0.999999999999999968c = 299792457.999... \text{m}\cdot\text{s}^{-1}$. This is definitely impossible, as the energy ...


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I think the issue you are going to have here is that the position of a star in the HR diagram - which amounts to saying what the (2 dimensional) spectral type is - does not just depend on its mass. The Vogt-Russell theorem says that the position of a star on the HR diagram depends on its mass, its composition and crucially, how its chemical elements are ...


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