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Based on this article, as stars age, they spin more slowly. The age of stars can therefore be estimated by measuring the stars' rotation : fast spinning stars are young while slow spinning stars are old.


This is a good question, and probably there is no certain answer right now. Also, the impacts of shock waves depend on what scenarios we are talking about. For an example in the case of supernovae, especially in Type II (H-rich), the shock wave forms double structures: forward and reverse shocks. Area in between the shocks can sometimes form a small region ...


The mass (equivalently energy) is radiated away as Hawking radiation.


Models for the future behaviour of the Sun do vary, mainly as a result of uncertainty of mass loss during the red giant (H shell burning) and asymptotic red giant (H+He shell burning) phases. A highly cited paper by Schroeder & Smith 2008 claims that the Sun will reach its maximum size of about $256 R_{\odot}$ (1.18 au) at the very tip of the red giant ...


Yes, you can see one tonight. Arctaurus is a red giant star with a mass of about 1.1 times the solar mass, so rather similar to the sun. It currently has a spectral type of K0 III. It is ascending the red giant branch, so it's luminosity and spectrum are not stable in the longer term. The sun will pass through this phase, and following a hydrogen flash ...


Arcturus is a RGB star, probably fairly similar how the sun will look when it becomes a red giant. Arcturus is slightly more massive than the sun ($m_{\rm Arc}=1.08 m_{\odot}$), but the main difference is the lower metallicity of $[Fe/H]\approx-0.5$. This low metallicity reduces the opacity in the stellar radiative zone (which fills a significant portion of ...

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