Is the Sun hotter today, in terms of absolute temperature (i.e., NOT total luminosity), than it was in the distant past?
Is there a formula for calculating surface temperature of a rocky world based on atmosphere and solar input?
Exactly how long does it take for the exposed core of a star to cool from its starting temperature (several billion K) to ~50,000 K?
If the sun would be two times as big and with the same power output would temperature on Earth change?
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