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3

My impression is that for answering your question, one would actually have to run simulations, ideally so-called global circulation models (GCM). If this is for a research project, the MIT GCM would be a good candidate to set up for the atmosphere of Io. Of course, there are research groups working on that issue, e.g. the team of Prof. Goldstein at the ...


2

Maybe somebody can help me understanding the following quote intuitively: However, by looking at the ratio of two different but related lines - those of iron - we found the ratio itself related to temperature. And it did so in a consistent and predictable way. A particular atom can only be at integer quantum states (Hydrogen is depicted here for simplicity)...


2

Stars behave like blackbodys. Not perfect idealized blackbodies, however, the spectrum of a star is close enough to the standard blackbody spectrum. Reason why you can use the Wien's Law to calculate an estimate of its surface temperature: $\lambda_{\rm max} = (0.29 {\rm\, cm\, K}) / T$ Where $\lambda_{\rm max}$ is the frequency of maximum measured emission ...


5

Possible, but rare. The reason is that many things are not linear with respect to temperature. Volume of gas is in direct proportion to temperature (at given pressure) but we rarely need to consider this. But, for example, the density of water is markedly non-linear with temperature. Moreover our physiometric response to temperature is also non linear. We ...


0

The Vogt-Russell "theorem" says that the structure of a star is uniquely determined by its mass and the distribution of chemical elements within its interior. To answer your question, you need to decide what you are holding fixed. A star of a given mass and composition has a fixed radius. If you increase the mass you increase the radius. If you fix ...


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For main sequence stars there is not much choice. If you pick mass, then all the rest is determined; any variation you see is due to different chemistry (thus fractions of different elements). For the main sequence one generally assumes that $L \propto M^{3.5}$ and $R \propto M^{2/3}$ (and similarily the density is given for a given mass). The Hertzsprung-...


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The website on Main sequence stars fromr the Austalian national telescope facility lists star mass, temperature and life span: Mass/MSun Luminosity/LSun T=Effective Temperature/K Radius/RSun t=Main sequence lifespan/yrs 0.10 $3×10^{-3}$ 2,900 0.16 $2×10^{12}$ 0.50 0.03 3,800 0.6 $2×10^{11}$ 0.75 0.3 5,000 0.8 $3×10^{10}$ 1.0 1 6,000 1.0 $1×10^{10}$ 1.5 ...


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