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2

This is a challenging problem and I can't give you a definitive answer, but here are some thoughts, mostly on the methodology rather than implementation. First, you are right that fundamentally the way to do this is to integrate the equations of motion backward in time, taking into account the relevant forces. You are also right that only considering the ...

2

The further the moon is from the sun the easier it is to see. There are two reasons. Firstly, when it is close to the sun it gets lost in the glare from the sun. The sky close to the sun is very bright, and there isn't enough contrast to see the moon against the bright sky. Secondly, as the moon gets further from the sun, more of the illuminated side of ...

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(Hope I’m not too late, two and a half years later… Just saw this post now—and I wasn’t a member of Astronomy SE back then…) The short answer is no. These two effects don’t occur in the same plane. Imagine the lunar orbit as an elongated ellipse—much more elongated than it is in real life. Imagine the Earth as one of the foci, closer to one tip than to the ...

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The "dark" side of the Moon is only truly dark during full Moon. Everywhere on the Moon there is day and night as well. The dark side of the Moon is called like that because we do not see it from Earth, since the Moon shows us always the same side due to tidal locking - not because it is always dark there. In other words: During (lunar) day, the ...

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While I couldn't find any quantitative information about views from Earth or orbit down to zero phase angle (especially since views direct from Earth are limited in phase angle due to Eclipse), this website gives an unreferenced data point suggesting Apollo astronauts observed that a zero-phase full moon is approximately 30% (0.2 magnitudes) brighter than we ...

3

The basic numbers are: Radius of Earth 6370km Radius of Moon 1740km Earth-moon distance 384000km and Radius of Jupiter 71500km So the scale factor is 71500/6370 = 11.22 The radius of the moon scaled is 1740×11.22 = 19500 km, and its distance becomes 384000×11.22 = 4310000 km For comparison, Neptune has a radius of 24600 km and a distance from Jupiter of ...

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The lunar opposition surge has been well studied, likely because we can study it in detail, we have surface samples, and so it serves as a baseline for other bodies in the solar system (as it does for many other kinds of surface studies). It is quite substantial in visible light. Probably Clementine data are the oldest-modern reference, and among others, ...

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As noted above, many sites will give you sunrise and sunset times, but both refer to when the entire Sun is below the horizon. You appear to be looking for when the Sun (or Moon) is touching the horizon, not when it goes completely below the horizon. The Sun sets when its geometric position is 50 minutes of arc below the horizon (because of refraction and ...

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How to determine when Sun/Moon is aligned to two location on Earth's surface? First check out the many answers to our canonical Where can I find the positions of the planets, stars, moons, artificial satellites, etc. and visualize them? Both Horizons and Skyfield below are based on NASA JPL Development Ephemerides and so are rock-solid accurate and ...

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The Photographers Ephemeris is a very nice tool to give you the direction and time of both Moon and Sunset and -rise, made for exactly that purpose: plan and time shots to be at the right place and time for an awesome scenery. Other programmes and tools to tell you rise and set times are Stellarium heavens above time and date

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