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1

Looks like an inferior mirage to me. This: https://aty.sdsu.edu/explain/simulations/inf-mir/Kaplan_photos.html Has a work through for the disk of the sun but I think the same general principles apply here as well. The specific effect will be somewhat different since in the image from space rays are moving from space down into and through the atmosphere, ...


-2

Yes. Exactly once. This is how we get the light and dark side of the moon. The reason for it being exactly once is due to something called tidal forces. Wikipedia explains this quite well: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tidal_locking.


4

Let's look at our solar system from above: The night side of Earth is the hemisphere facing away from the Sun. The Moon orbits around the Earth, on a path that takes 28 days. So for half of that orbit (14 days, from Last Quarter to New Moon to First Quarter), the Moon is visible from the day side of the Earth.


4

If you turn your back to the sun and look at a building, the sun shines on the building and you can see it. If the building is very far away but very big, you can still see it because the sun is still shining on it during the day. If you think of the moon as a very large object very far away in the same direction as that building, you can see that the sun ...


5

Let's look at what the difference is between day and night. In the day time, the air that's between you and the Moon is in the sunlight, but at night, that air is in the dark. Day or night though, the air is still transparent (you can see the Moon through it), and the light from the moon is mostly unaffected. When it's in sunlight, the air scatters some ...


1

The location is fairly easily possible and even ancient civilizations had managed to do such predictions. In fact for a large part of history large parts of clergy we're committed to just keeping track of time, predicting moon phases, winter/summer solstices and such. Some could even predict eclipses. However, if it's interpreted that a specific person has ...


22

Note: this answer was posted under duress; though I mentioned in a comment under the question that I was composing an answer, several users have decided to close the question out from under me. Therefore I've put this together a little hastily. It's late here and I'll come back in the morning to address any questions or requests for clarification, and ...


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