Our Sun moves through the galaxy much slower than light does. So the light that was emitted last year by the Sun is already very far away from the Earth. Therefore, we don't receive any light from (i.e. we don't see) the Sun as is was last year.
As an analogy, image walking along and shooting bullets in all directions. The bullets are going much faster ...
From the Wikipedia page on the Tropical year,
The mean tropical year is approximately 365 days, 5 hours, 48 minutes, 45 seconds.
Starting from the Tropical year proceeding after your birth date, you can calculate 27 Tropical years forward by adding that approximate amount of time 27 times over.
Yes, measurements do exist. JPL takes very precise observations of many objects in the solar system and tries to obtain a location for the solar system barycenter.
The solar system barycenter is a hot topic especially in terms of PTA's, or pulsar timing arrays - we need precise a precise location for the solar system barycenter to do work with these pulsar ...
Answer: Under reasonable assumptions, Thursday, November 26th at 4:11:28pm in the same time zone you were born. Assumptions:
You are in the same time zone now as you were at birth, and there has been no change to "daylight time" or "summer time" that would effect November 26th or November 27th of 1993 or 2020
There is no leap second added at the end of 30 ...
A sidereal zodiac is not the same as the IAU constellations but corresponds more closely to them than the Western tropical zodiac does, e.g. the eastern edge of Virgo remains near Spica despite precession.
I assumed equal 30° blocks of ecliptic longitude with the J285.25 equinox as origin (Lahiri ayanamsa).
Your local tradition may differ slightly, but ...
I'm not sure what you mean by "network" in this context, but on the SOHO website, you can find pictures of the Sun for every day since 2006.
Quiet: there aren't any visible structures at the surface of the Sun
Active: the black spots are sunspots
ERROR: My program incorrectly assumes that the sun's sidereal rising time is always increasing. This is generally true, but not near the poles. In those cases (and I hope to add more details later), there can be multiple heliacal rising/setting/etc dates, and the program will either give a completely incorrect answer, or, at best, only one of the heliacal ...