Yes there are. They are mainly based on what dominates the energy density of the universe at the time and they are known as epochs.
Thus we have the inflationary epoch in the first tiny fraction of a second, when the energy density was dominated by an inflationary field.
Then we are in the electroweak epoch, when the weak nuclear and electromagnetic forces ...
TL;DR: Because light doesn't travel at an infinite speed.
Light travels at exactly 299,792,458 meters per second, and one AU is equal to 149,597,870,700 meters. Therefore, it takes about 500 seconds, or 8 minutes and 20 seconds, for light to travel from the Sun to Earth.
This source doesn't give sufficient information to get the length of either a stellar or sidereal day. The rotation rate of a body is not governed by the orbital parameters. The Earth, for example, has a slowing spin rate as the Moon retreats due to tidal interactions. This doesn't affect the Earth's orbital parameters.
The fields given are: