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38 votes
Accepted

Can an object from a natural process escape earth gravitation?

Yes, it is not only possible, but has almost certainly happened on Earth. The asteroid that killed the dinosaurs is thought to have produced these high velocity fragments on the order of one-...
Connor Garcia's user avatar
  • 16.3k
18 votes

Can an object from a natural process escape earth gravitation?

If the object can be as small as an atom, then it's happening constantly. Atoms in a hot gas mixture will have an average velocity related to the average kinetic energy which is in turn related to ...
uhoh's user avatar
  • 30.6k
14 votes
Accepted

When was the last volcanic eruption on Mars?

Berman and Hartman (2002) dated some lava flows of the Athabasca–Marte Valles system at < 20 Ma (mega-annum). Later, Vaucher et al. (2009) dated lava flows of the same region, finding ages even ...
Jean-Marie Prival's user avatar
11 votes
Accepted

Can planetary rings form as a result of solidifed lava thrown up by volcanoes on the surface of small rocky moons/planets?

This doesn't seem to occur in our solar system. The most volcanic body, Io, does create a trail of gas around its orbit of Jupiter, but has no ringlike structure of its own. As uhoh notes, orbital ...
James K's user avatar
  • 125k
9 votes

What is k2, how does it relate to Io's volcanism and how can Juno constrain its value?

It is called Tidal love number. The definition is as follows: In Newtonian gravitational theory, a tidal Love number relates the mass multipole moment created by tidal forces on a spherical body to ...
Nilay Ghosh's user avatar
  • 4,696
8 votes

Can an object from a natural process escape earth gravitation?

I'd be surprised if the event that created the Moon didn't scatter some debris beyond the Earth's Hill sphere (in order to choose one meaning of "escape Earth gravitation").
Peter - Reinstate Monica's user avatar
6 votes
Accepted

What is k2, how does it relate to Io's volcanism and how can Juno constrain its value?

$k_2$ is one of three tidal Love-Shida numbers related to how gravitation of another body (Jupiter in this case) changes a planet-like body's second degree spherical harmonics (Io in this case). Three ...
David Hammen's user avatar
  • 34.1k
5 votes

How much mass do the volcanoes of Io erupt past escape velocity?

The velocity required to escape the gravitational attraction of a massive body is given by the following equation: $$ v_{\mathrm{escape}} = \sqrt{\frac{2GM}{R}}$$ where $G$ is the gravitational ...
christopherlovell's user avatar
5 votes
Accepted

Crust thick enough to prevent volcanos

It depends on the definition of Earth-like planet. In terms of size, density and gravity Venus is very Earth-like, but in terms of atmospheric and surface conditions and its axis of rotation, and ...
Fred's user avatar
  • 2,169
5 votes

When was the last eruption on the Moon?

A long time ago. The major mare forming eruptions occurred more than 3.5 billion years ago, but a paper Ages and stratigraphy of mare basalts finds that some volcanic basalts are as young as 1.2 ...
James K's user avatar
  • 125k
4 votes

Are there any specific examples of overlapping impact and volcanic craters on astronomical bodies beyond Earth?

Ulysses Tholes is a volcanic mountain with a caldera, that is overlapped by two sizable impact craters. This image from NASA's Mars Trek shows the mountain, caldera and impact craters. The volcanic ...
James K's user avatar
  • 125k
3 votes

How does Io's atmosphere behave locally near volcanic plumes?

My impression is that for answering your question, one would actually have to run simulations, ideally so-called global circulation models (GCM). If this is for a research project, the MIT GCM would ...
B--rian's user avatar
  • 5,626
3 votes
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Are the Venusian "continents" likely to have existed before the global resurfacing event?

Ishtar Terra belongs to the tessera type of terrain, "one of the most tectonically deformed types of terrain on Venus", representing ~7.3 % of Venus' surface (Ivanov & Head 2011, Global ...
Jean-Marie Prival's user avatar
2 votes

Could an impact have resurfaced Venus 300 million years ago?

What about the possibility that Venus (and its former moon) went through a much more rapid evolution then occurs normally? Typically a planet-moon system will undergo the following sequence of events: ...
David F's user avatar
  • 21
2 votes

Could martian meteorites come from Olympus Mons?

The short answer to your question is, "no," and that's for a couple reasons. There are a lot of different styles of volcanism, but they can be broadly classified as "pyroclastic" ...
Stuart Robbins's user avatar
2 votes

What mechanism could have formed the Moon's Oceanus Procellarum rift-like gravity anomalies?

Source: JPL Article "The gravity anomalies along the border structures are interpreted as ancient, solidified, lava-flooded rifts that are now buried beneath the surface of the dark volcanic plains, ...
MystaryPi's user avatar
  • 364
2 votes

What implications does younger volcanism have on the Moon's thermal evolution?

A younger lunar thermal history implies that the Moon was still undergoing a contraction and cooling process, which was initiated when it began accreting material together. Evidence has shown that the ...
BankBits's user avatar
2 votes

How was Io not torn apart by tidal forces during its formation?

I think the other answer is correct on migration, but there's a flaw in the way this question is asked, which should be addressed. It's also worth looking at the formation of Jupiter as well. One of ...
userLTK's user avatar
  • 24.1k
2 votes
Accepted

Is or might there be lightning on Io?

I would bet against lightning due to the very thin SO2 atmosphere; under normal conditions the pressure is 0.3 to 3 nbar, with plumes reaching 5 to 40 nbar. That does not sound like it could convey ...
Anders Sandberg's user avatar
2 votes

When was the last volcanic eruption on Mars?

Per this article, the most recent volcanic activity on Mars might be less than 1 million (Earth) years old. Pyroclastic deposits in Elysium Planitia were dated thanks to impact craters and were found ...
usernumber's user avatar
  • 17.6k
2 votes

Crust thick enough to prevent volcanos

Depends on how Earth-like you want it to be. On Earth, most parts of the crust do not support volcanoes. But because we have active plate tectonics, there will always be places where plates slide ...
Kristoffer Sjöö's user avatar
2 votes

Are there any specific examples of overlapping impact and volcanic craters on astronomical bodies beyond Earth?

The lunar maria are circular volcanic basalt, so technically, every impact on one makes an overlapping crater.
Miss_Understands's user avatar
1 vote

Why do Venus, Earth, and Mars have tall volcanoes, but the Moon, Mercury, and Io don't?

Mercury MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) data show that most of Mercury's surface consists of lava plains. However, no volcanoes (mountains built by eruptions)...
Nilay Ghosh's user avatar
  • 4,696
1 vote
Accepted

When was the last eruption on the Moon?

Braden et al. 2014 indicates that volcanism might have occurred on the Moon up to 100 million years ago. Most traces of volcanism such as the lunar mare are more than 3 billion years old. However, ...
usernumber's user avatar
  • 17.6k
1 vote

Is Io's orbit or rotation affected by its volcanism?

Is Io's orbit or rotation affected by its volcanism? The rotations of comets and asteroids are affected by outgassing volatilities. Io is very volcanically active. Does this give Io a varying orbit ...
Rob's user avatar
  • 2,656

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